A person’s interaction with the environment at the macro, mezzo and micro level has a significant impact on their development. The environment and the individual is seen as a unitary system within a culture that affects each other. On the micro level, it is the interaction between individuals, for example, immediate family. On the mezzo level, it is the interaction with the neighborhood, the school, courts and other structures within the society. On the macro level, it is how cultural experiences, religious institutions and organizations affect people in society. Each of these systems contribute to how the person and the environment interacts at various level in society. Each of these three systems has impacted my own development and experiences.
Lastly, the macrosystem covers the context in which an individual’s attitudes, values, customs, culture and ideologies are found. The following is a more detailed look at each of the four (4) components, beginning with microsystems.
The Microsystem refers to the environment that has a direct influence on an individual; school, home, place of worship, teachers, and peers are included in the Microsystem. A personal example is that my mother, an extremely prominent figure in any person’s Microsystem, noticed that I had a rather good potential for working on creative stories. As a direct influence on me, she gave me praise on the stories that I showed her and gave me encouragement to continue working on my writing. Therefore, she directly influenced my psychological development since her praise heightened my self-esteem and allowed me to have a good self-image of myself thanks to the environment I was raised in.
The use of drugs by teenagers today has caused a concern in the UK. Teenagers are unknown to the effects that drugs can cause physically and mentally. It is very important that there is awareness on drug abuse among young people. Since the usage of drugs not only affects the body, it also affects many aspects of a person’s daily life. Firstly, it affects the social life, causing isolation, which is one of the most common effects that happen due to drug usage. Secondly, it affects family and relationships. Due to the addiction of drugs, sometimes families abandon their children or lose their trust on them. Lastly, drug use affects people financially and professionally. Depending on drugs, causes the financial strain to be devastating, as
I believe Micro-environment is what our status role is, whereas a macro -environment is more of social hierarchy and socialization. There are many social institutions that can shape a person, just as one family can shape the same person in another way.
The micro level is comprised of the way the individuals view their own values, beliefs, communication styles, and behaviors (Grinnell et al., 2014). The macro level is comprised of levels of organizations, institutions, and communities in which the individual is surrounded by (Grinnell et al., 2014). Because different cultures establish different framework within which people process information, think, communicate, and behave (Grinnell et al., 2014). These organizations, institutions, and communities are displayed through mandates, policies, and practices (Grinnell et al.,
This is how? Families in the States of America are viewed as the basic source of strength, providing nurturance as well as the support for its individual members while ensuring stability and generational continuity for the community versus its culture. The sense of rapid social, economic and political change turns to affect the family and reduces their sense of the relationship between people, groups, and even places. According to research, stability of relationships, expectations, as well as the environment which is a very powerful force that helps people to manage their lives, most especially the young adults and the children. Having said that, classical issues of balancing discipline and control of children with the support, which encourages them to explore and understand the world may be complicated by abusing the use of alcohol and drugs as well as a wide range of other conditions (unodc.org). In other words, family experience with and parental attitudes towards alcohol and other drug use affect a child’s likelihood of developing alcohol and other drug problems. Also, the act of poor management, lack of family bonding, poor monitoring of a child’s behavior and that of physical abuse and or neglect are possible risk factors that allowed or give room for
One may be astonished to discover that in 2012 “..about 17 percent of American high school students were drinking, smoking or using drugs during the school day” and this number has remained relatively stagnant throughout the years (Kuczynski-Brown). The amount of students who take part in the illegal acts of drinking, smoking, and drug use has been difficult to combat. Students do not understand that these substances can result in harmful consequences down the road. This is why it is imperative that, as a society, we begin looking for solutions to defeat these harmful habits, and sometimes, addictions. The earlier we begin to inculcate the effects of these substances on the young, the better. That is why the prime-time to spread this message
According to the Bronfenbrenner theory macrosystem would be defined as the society and subculture in which an individual belongs. Macrosystem focuses on the individual’s belief system, lifestyle, patterns of social interaction and life changes. (Berns, 2013, p. 22).
In this paper, I look at forms of substance abuse and the effects on children. I will be using the following headings to break down the different issues associated with this social problem: social causes, phenomenon, and consequences. I hope to educate those that may be ignorant to the situation, and help to spark a flame that can be used to not be a bystander, but a solution to the problem at hand.
Drug use is an increasing problem among teenagers in today's high schools. Most drug use begins in the teenage years, these years are the most crucial in the maturing process. During these years adolescents are faced with the difficult tasks of discovering their self identity, clarifying their sexual roles, assenting independence, learning to cope with authority figures and searching for goals that would give their lives meaning. Drugs are readily available, adolescents are curious and venerable, and there is peer pressure to experiment, and there is a temptation to escape from conflicts. The use of drugs by teenagers is the result of a combination of factors such as peer pressure, curiosity, and
The vast majority of researches focuses on the between the parent-child relationship. Most researches mentions that the parent and child relationship is factor always present in many cases of adolescent substance use (Caughlin et al. 2004; Henry et al. 2003; Jones et al. 1998; Slicker et al. 2004.). Though the parental involvement is a common factor between all of the articles, the approach in how they affect adolescents differ between articles. All of the four articles focused about the withdraw and demand between parent and child, while the other one also focuses on the child imitation of their parents based how they act.
The article that I chose from Nissen’s bibliography article is the role of family in preventing and intervening with substance use and misuse and family interventions that focus on young people. The article talks about how families plays a key part in helping prevent substance abuse and misuse by both promoting and encouraging safety and resilience. Young people are prone to become involved with drugs and not only harm themselves but their families as well. In the United States 12 percent of people in the population aged 12-17, have used some type of illicit drugs (Vellememan, Templeton & Copello, 2004). Young people are easily influenced into the use and misuse of substance abuse. When the child has a close family bond and a positive relationship with family, that closeness has been found to discourage their choices to try drugs and alcohol through positive reinforcements within the family structure. There is evidence that children who are from single parent
In ecological theory, these systems are nested with the child at the core, embedded within his/her immediate family environment. The system with the closest proximity to the child is the microsystem; this includes the child and family, peers, neighborhood and school. A critical impact on development occurs within the immediate environment of the child due to proximal
Macro environment consist of those major external and uncontrollable factors that influence an organization's decision making, and affect its performance and strategies.