The whole world observed as the administration responders appeared incapable to provide essential protection from the effects of nature. The deprived response results from a failure to accomplish a number of risk factors (Moynihan, 2009). The dangers of a major hurricane striking New Orleans had been measured, and there was sufficient warning of the threat of Katrina that announcements of emergency were made days in advance of landfall (Moynihan, 2009). Nonetheless, the responders were unsuccessful to change this information into a level of preparation suitable with the possibility of the approaching disaster. Federal responders failed to recognize the need to more actively engage (Moynihan, 2009). These improvements include improved ability to provide support to states and tribes ahead of a disaster; developed a national disaster recovery strategy to guide recovery efforts after major disasters and emergencies; and the Establishment of Incident Management Assistance Teams in which these full time, rapid response teams are able to deploy within two hours and arrive at an incident within 12 hours to support the local incident commander (FEMA,
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) would become the central point-of-contact within the national government in responding to incidents. Since formation in 1979, FEMA’s core missions were to enhance the government’s ability to survive a foreign attack, and to assist state and local authorities in disaster response (Carafano, 2005). And while the two core missions seem heterogenous in scope at times from an outside perspective, the biggest difference between the two tasks is duration. A man-made disaster may be over in a matter of minutes as compared to a hurricane lasting several days, but in both instances the road to recovery is long. In order to streamline response and recovery in either scenario, FEMA was reorganized with new directives to support comprehensive emergency management practices (CRS, 2006). Today, FEMA provides the standard approach and guidance that many local communities may not have due to funding, training, and
There has been a great development in the way the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) responds to natural disasters. Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Sandy, and wildfires in California are three major disasters that required a large FEMA response and recovery effort. These three natural disasters stressed the resources and abilities FEMA has in their arsenal. As any good organization does, FEMA learned from their experiences and mistakes in order to handle the next challenge they have to face accordingly. Hurricane Katrina affected over 15 million people, caused $81 billion in property damages, and 90,000 square miles (11 Facts About Hurricane Katrina). There was much controversy over the response of the Federal Emergency Management Agency
Ensuring Resilience to Disasters has more tasking’s than another mission and involves many different agencies to accomplish those tasks. The four tasks are to mitigate hazards, enhance preparedness, ensure effective emergency response, and rapidly recover. The main agency that is responsible for these tasking’s is FEMA. FEMA’s mission is to “reduce the loss of life and property and protect communities nationwide from all hazards, including natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters” (FEMA, 2017, p.2). FEMA works with federal and State services to assist them in accomplishing their goals. They also assist local services by assisting in setting up emergency management agencies (LEMA) and set guidance for Emergency Operations Planning (EOP). EOP’s are “plans that provide an overview of the jurisdiction’s preparedness and response strategies. It describes expected hazards, outlines agency roles and responsibilities, and explains how the jurisdiction keeps the plan current.” (FEMA, 2010,
This program is the Department of Homeland Security’s final priority to “plan, train, and equip police, fire, and paramedics to react successfully to terrorism; and promotes recovery with the assistance of disaster specialists.” (Homeland Security, 2015) One of the examples of disaster specialists that help assist in disasters like Hurricane Katrina is the Federal Emergency Management Agency also known as FEMA. FEMA helps communities with reducing their risk, helps its different agency officials prepare for all types of hazards, and also helps people in communities get back on their
First, FEMA offered 100% funding of public assistance, which had never been done before. Typically, the state and local government are required to provide a portion of this funding. Another change that FEMA made, was in its interpretation of the Stafford Act when rebuilding the transportation system for the city. Public transportation is the primary route of transportation for the majority of New York City. Therefore, it was vital that FEMA not only repair the damage done to the NYC public transit system, but to improve the infrastructure. Typically the funding provided by FEMA for these damages would be for repair only, and FEMA would not provide the extra money needed to make improvements over the way it operated prior to the disaster. The improvement to the transportation system received the largest portion of FEMA’s funding provided to NYC. The NYC police and fire department also received millions of dollars to cover losses and payment for the large numbers involved in the initial response, and payment of pensions to the families of those members who lost their lives. FEMA funding also aided in the identification
The Northridge earthquake in southern California used a bottom up process. The local and state government reacted swiftly and then the federal Government stepped up immediately after. The earthquake reached a magnitude of 6.7 and the rumblings were felt across the state impacting 214,000 square Kilometers. Rescue missions and inspections were done right after the quake and directed local citizens to safe areas. Even though the government reacted appropriately there was a small gap between the population and the governmental action. Citizens overestimated the relief efforts and felt that they were unable to address some of the critical issues cause by the earthquake. People in California were used to disasters and handled the situation to the
Concepts State and local responders formulate the concepts within the FRP around disasters and emergencies that can be handled “the Federal Government is called on to provide supplemental assistance when the consequences of a disaster exceed State and local capabilities” (p.11). If assistance is required by State, and local agencies, the Federal Government has the ability to deploy a wide range of assets to aid state and local efforts during the disaster. The Federal Government has a large contingency of support personnel, teams, operating facilities, specialized equipment, and assistance programs that allow for disaster operations. “The FRP describes the major components of the system, as well as the structure for coordinating Federal response and recovery actions necessary to address State-identified requirements and priorities”
As a part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) group during the tabletop exercise I was afforded the opportunity to take a closer look at segments of FEMA’s emergency response in crisis situations, specifically an earthquake affecting 35,000 people.
Supplies could be needed in one area, but without communication that area might not be able to reach out for those supplies. Communication amongst first responders is important for information sharing, so that information can flow between different jurisdictions and agencies. When looking at the efforts of first responders, communication is the one constant variable, which without communication all efforts would be in vain. (Newman & Clarke, 2008) The National Incident Management System (NIMS) places an emphasis on the importance of communication when dealing with response efforts. The National Incident Management System shows how having a unified command systems can benefit the response efforts to disaster. However, without proper and efficient communication, a unified command system cannot proceed efficiently.
For the past 35 years, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, commonly known as FEMA, has been dedicated to preparing, protecting, responding and serving the American people following major disasters and crisis. Effective on April 1, 1979 under President Jimmy Carter’s administration and funded through federal funding, FEMA has been committed
The national agencies involved in pre and post-disaster management and planning are The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), in connection with The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and The Ready Campaign. FEMA was first implemented during President Jimmy Carter's term in 1979. Their mission is dedicated to nationally support and protect citizens throughout the country during natural or manmade disasters (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2017). FEMA works closely together with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security along with local and state governments to provide extensive disaster relief efforts and necessary assistance during any crisis (Department Homeland Security, 2016). FEMA offers both pre and post-disaster
Even though FEMA has made progress, there is additional work needed in several areas. The response of the storm exposed challenges in how FEMA coordinated Federal agencies, State officials, and preparing and deploying it staff. For example, “difficulties with issuing mission assignment in a timely manner, implementation of incident management
When an incident occurs within the United States, the Incident Command System (ICS) is brought into action. The ICS process serves as a management system designed to provide an effective incident management structure by way of combining facilities, personnel, equipment, operating procedures, communications and operational standards. The ICS is not
The Incident Command System Today, the Incident Command System (ICS) is a major component of NIMS and is widely used in emergency management response. However, this was not always the case. According to David A. McEntire and Gregg Dawson, authors of the article, “The intergovernmental Context,” ICS was originally developed by the fire service in 1970. Its purpose was to assist in the command of wildfire events. It was unique because it standardized operations, yet offered flexibility so that it could be used on any number of events, regardless of size or type (McEntire & Dawson, 2007, p. 63).