Factors Affecting Human Development During Phases Of Meiosis And Mitosis

2070 Words9 Pages
The process of nondisjunction can occur in human development during phases in meiosis and mitosis. The irregularity results in an abnormal amount of chromosomes in the produced cells and causes alterations in those who are affected. Nondisjunctional consequences can be seen in these five examples of genetic inheritance conditions discussed in this paper: Down syndrome, Patau’s syndrome, Edward’s syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Turner’s syndrome. The Mendelian principles of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel include the patterns of autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. Autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns can cause disorders such as: Marfan syndrome and Huntington disease from the inheritance of dominant…show more content…
As a result, there are an extra amount or not enough sets of chromosomes in the cells created which causes disorders in those affected. The effects of nondisjunction include the following diseases: Down syndrome, Patau’s syndrome, Edward’s syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Turner’s syndrome. Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance patterns determine how certain traits are passed on to the next generation. Mendelian patterns are autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes Marfan syndrome and Huntington disease, and autosomal recessive inheritance, which causes cystic fibrosis and sickle-cell disease. Non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance include polygenic and mitochondrial inheritance. Polygenic inheritance is seen in the inheritance of traits like skin color and height and can cause heart diseases and cancer. In mitochondrial inheritance, also known as maternal inheritance, DNA in the mitochondria is passed down primarily from the mother. This form of inheritance causes some disorders like Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and Kearns-Sayre syndrome may occur. Epigenetic inheritance is an unusual process in which epigenetic tags created by a parent’s experience can be passed on to their offspring.
Nondisjunction describes the process in which the chromosomes of a cell do not divide in the correct manner during meiosis and mitosis. The abnormality occur in one of three ways due to the incorrect division of
Get Access