Factors Affecting the Second Language Learners' Fluency.

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Factors Affecting the Second Language Learners' Fluency.
Although oral proficiency is a central goal of the language teaching, too little attention has been paid to the complex of factors that underlie the fluent of speech. This problem may encounter most second language teachers and learners. I have chosen to write about factors affecting the second language learners' fluency (SLLF) in order to increase teachers' awareness about these factors and to enable teachers to improve second language learners' fluency. Though there are different perspectives of these factors: sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic. This essay is going to focus on the sociolinguistic factors in particular due to space limitations. The major goal,
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Their views encompassed not only knowledge but also ability to put knowledge into use. Certainly, psychological and social factors are important for (SLLF) and possibly genetic ones. However, social factors have a major impact on L2 proficiency directly i.e. age, gender, social class, and ethnic identity and indirectly i.e. attitudes.

Age factor has two aspects: the psycholinguistic and the sociolinguistic .Age has received considerable attention from sociolinguists. Krashen, Long, and Scarcella (1979) presented proof for three conclusions about the connection between age, rate, and final achievement in second language proficiency. They stated that adults outperform children in syntax and morphology. Older children outperform younger children, as well. However, acquirers who were exposed to L2 during childhood achieve higher L2 proficiency than adults. Schumann (1975) cited findings which support the claim that adult and adolescent learners are concerned with identity, less open to new people and customs, more suspicious of novelty, and more threatened by situations in which they might appear preposterous. Krashen(1982) took all this to mean that adolescents and adults have an affective filter made up of suspiciousness and concern for identity ;this
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