Factors And Effects Of Invasive Species

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Introduction Invasive species have a serious effect on native wildlife, representing the second major threat to biodiversity after the destruction of habitat (IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)). The introduction of alien species is mainly a consequence of past human actions, especially after the 1950s when international trade increased. Besides the spread due to international trade, invasive species were often introduced for aquaculture and sports purpose (Grosholz 1996; Gozlan et al. 2010).
Non-native species often outperforms indigenous species in their habitat directly by competitive exclusion, niche displacement, high reproductive rate, predation, fewer natural enemies in the new environment, long life span and their good dispersal (Manchester and Bullock, 2000; Cuda et al, 2015; San Sebastian et al, 2015; GB non-native species secretariat, 2017). Furthermore, invasive species are more skilled predators and have a wide range of plasticity regarding food consumption and shelter preferences (Gherardi and Acquistapac 2007; Olsson et al. 2009). Frequently, introduced species are vectors of pathogens and parasites and in the past have caused a rapid decline of native population due to their susceptibility to new disease (GB non-native species secretariat). Apart from the effect on biodiversity, non-native species caused difficulties in countries budget, where in the UK direct annual costs of invasive species are nearly £1.7 billion (Hulm, 2009; GB
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