Factors Between Conformity To Masculine Norms And Sexual Objectification

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Conformity to Masculine Norms and Sexual Objectification Gender roles and norms are defined as the “society’s evaluation of behavior as either masculine or feminine” (Basow, 1986 as cited by McKay, 2013). These gender roles are developed through two processes namely: cognitive approach and learning approach (Sinnott & Shiffren, 2001). The cognitive approach asserts that “gender roles develop because a child’s perception of identification precedes role-appropriate behavior”. In this approach, a child discovers his or her gender, and continuously repeats socially reinforced behavior in accordance with expected gender roles. Thereafter, the roles are kept consistent over the person’s lifespan. The learning approach on the other hand states that “the individual comes to understand, and to accept, behaviors that lead to survival and success in society”.
Kiselica and Englar-Carson (2010) suggested ten positive traits that are closely associated with traditional concepts of masculinity which include the following: relational styles, ways of caring, generative fathering, self-reliance, being a worker/provider, group orientation, courage, humanitarian service, use of humor, and heroism. The relational style suggests that a man must develop friendships and intimacy through shared
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In this study, there are five social factors that were identified and believed to serve as moderating variables such as: men’s male peer-group association, men’s pornography consumption, men’s Facebook use, men’s body image and muscularity, and men’s perception of female beauty. These factors will be discussed in the succeeding

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