Factors Of Gene-Environment Interaction

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Gene-environment interaction
Several recent studies have explored the interplay between different genetic and environmental risk factors associated with ADHD. One of the main motivators for these investigations is that, in twin studies, gene markers have only been implicated in a small fraction of heritability. Therefore, there has been a need to identify the environmental conditions that favor the highest genetic impact, along with the genotypic profiles that make the environmental experiences more influential. Several psychosocial factors, including low income, family conflict and adversity, are thought to show some level of genetic interaction when it comes to contributing to ADHD symptoms, primarily with the DAT1 and 5-HTT genotypes
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This highly emphasize the presence of the gene-environment interaction where the DRD4 7R allele seems to make the children more susceptible to the low levels of sensitivity reflected by their mothers.
The DRD4 gene has been implicated in different other gene-environment interaction studies. For example, DiLalla and colleagues (2015) demonstrated that children with the 7R long allele showed different externalizing behaviors depending on the amount of victimization they received in school. They presented with high ADHD-like symptoms when receiving a significant amount of verbal victimization, a behavioral outcome that did not seem to be significant when they were not subject to any victimization (Brestand, 2016). Further experiments exploring this interaction found that DRD4 7R children with a high attachment to their parent appeared to be more generous when assessing their donation behavior, compared to the kids without the allele who were less generous in their donations (Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., 2011). This serves as another example of how influential the interaction between the genotype and the environmental experience could be in predicting not only psychopathologies but general child behavior.
Another study exploring the genetic and environmental effects on behavior considered
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