Factors That Affect Effective Psychotherapy

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Briefly present examples of three “Common” factors that are nonspecific to a particular type of therapy. What does research suggest about the importance of such factors in effective psychotherapy.

Three common factors which are nonspecific to a particular type of therapy are: treatment alliance, therapist effects, and extra-therapeutic factors. These common factors are responsible for much of the outcome variance. Treatment alliance is a partnership between the client and the therapist to achieve patient goals. A positive alliance is the best predictor of patient outcomes (Horvath & Symonds, p.145, Martin, Garske, & Davis, p.145). Therapist effects are the significant differences in results which are attributed to the therapist (Crits-Christoph et al. p.146; Project MATCH Research Group, p.146). Extra-therapeutic effects are those factors that clients bring into the treatment process (e.g. attributes, struggles, motivations, and social supports). These effects are responsible for 40% of the variance in outcomes (Lambert, p.146). Bohart and Tallman characterize clients as the agents of change (p.146). The research results cited above, demonstrate the importance of common factors in effective psychotherapy.
What are three differences among therapists that might affect the effectives of psychotherapy? What does research generally suggest about the importance of differences among therapists in predicting therapeutic
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