Factors for Abnormal Behavior.

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1. To what extent do biological, cognitive, and sociocultural factors influence abnormal behavior? • Biological • Genetic predisposition (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa) • Imbalance of neurotransmitters (anorexia nervosa and depression – serotonin, schizophrenia – depression • Hormones (anorexia nervosa: cortisol, orexin) • Cognitive • Cognitive theorists believe that abnormality is caused by unrealistic, distorted or irrational understanding, perceptions and thoughts about oneself, others or the environment. Abnormal behavior is also caused by difficulty in controlling thought processes or using them to control actions • A depressed mood can lead to depressed thoughts • Depressed cognitions, cognitive distortions, and…show more content…
Discuss validity and reliability of diagnosis • Problems with classification • No physical signs of disorders making it difficult to diagnose • Lack of agreement using same classification system • DSM-IV - 64% agreed • ICD-X - 36% agreed • Rosenhan(1973) • Pseudo-patients admitted to hospital with diagnosis of schizophrenia but actually were sane • Showed that standard clinical interviews are flawed and can only estimate a diagnosis • McLaren • Disorders share many criteria and are simply rewordings • Diagnoses are subjective • Cultural Variations • ICD is more reliable (Costello, Costello and Holmes, 1998) • ICD used more for clinical diagnosis while DSM used for research • Degree of agreement(Andrews,1999): • Good: depression, general anxiety disorder, substance abuse • Moderate: anxiety disorders • Poor: PTSD • Some diseases in DSM but not in ICD or CCMD • Different names for same disease in different countries • Different diseases in other countries 5. Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis • Cultural differences in the display of certain disorders • The way in which people perceive certain disorders may differ from culture to culture. People in various cultures define disorders differently, depending on their social and cultural backgrounds. In individualistic cultures, people may define disorders as a mental illness,
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