Modern medical advancements have significantly decreased the prevalence and severity of infectious disease as well as the treatment of acute, traumatic conditions. Pharmacological research has also gained insight into the management of chronic disease. Still, there is an epidemic of chronic, treatable diseases like stroke, heart disease, and kidney disease. Hypertension proves to be the underlying factor associated with these diseases. Hypertension is often referred to as the silent killer because of its indication in deadly disease, and the importance of monitoring ones blood pressure is vital. Lifestyle, diet, and genetic predisposition are all factors of high blood pressure. Chronic high blood pressure above safe levels, known as hypertension, puts elevated physical stress on the renal and cardiovascular systems. By controlling this factor in patients, healthcare providers can decrease cardiovascular events, improve health outcomes, and decrease overall mortality. Patient education is often overlooked in its role in the control and prevention of high blood pressure. This paper analyzes the causes and physiology behind high blood pressure as they relate to the current nursing interventions. The role of nurses is discussed in relation to patient education regarding high blood pressure, and educational approaches are analyzed.
* The U.S. High Blood Pressure Education Program is a public-private cooperative effort formed to help reduce death and disability related to hypertension, which is at the root of 50% of those suffering heart attacks and two-thirds of those suffering strokes. Using a campaign that integrates social marketing to first build awareness of the “silent killer,” and then encourage action, awareness of the problem more than tripled to over 90% and those seeking treatment more than doubled within a single decade.
The major health problem selected for this project was hypertension (Harrison et al, 2011). It is identified as a cardio vascular disease risk factor such as dementia, chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke (NICE, 2011). It can be missed easily, as in various instances it is asymptomatic as well as it is also known as a silent killer. The Hypertension is thought to be a disease of vascular regulation ensuing from arterial pressure control mechanisms malfunction (extracellular fluid volume, rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and CNS) that results in elevation of BP by means of enhanced peripheral vascular resistance, and cardiac output. There are 2 basic hypertension types. Around 90 to 95 percent of the individuals have primary hypertension which is linked with change in lifestyle as well as needs medical treatment. On the other hand, 5-10% has secondary hypertension which is linked with various other diseases for instance pregnancy, thyroid, and renal (Haslam and James, 2005). It is estimated that around 1 in 20 adults will have increased BP of 160/100 mmHg and above that results in either more than one predisposing aspects (Gemmell et al, 2006).
Bernice, is an 80 year old, African American, female, who presents to the inpatient unit for further therapy after undergoing a colostomy reversal. Her history is significant for type 2 diabetes mellitus, stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and hypertension, for which she is taking a calcium channel blocker and a beta blocker. Her family history indicates that both her sisters and brother, had diabetes, as well as hypertension. Another key element is that Bernice is a former smoker. Physical examination reveals a healthy weight women, with a blood pressure of 153/71 mmHg and a heart rate of 64 bpm. Lungs are clear, and cardiac examination reveals a regular rate and rhythm. Abdomen is without bruits and peripheral pulses are equal. Laboratory results are significant for a non fasting glucose of 182 mg/dL. The patient’s blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine are 26 mg/dL and 1.82 mg/dL.
Essential hypertension also referred to as primary hypertension is a disease that doesn't show any symptoms. When symptoms do show that is shows some long term effects that it has had on other organs. Essential hypertension is an idiopathic disease, meaning there isn't no identifiable cause, however it tends to be the consequence of an interaction between environment and genetic factors. That could be why it is called the silent killer, the only way to be diagnosed is by having your blood pressure checked three times at separate physician appointments. Hypertension can lead to many diseases such as, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease,
The prevalence of increased blood pressure within the community should decrease, and hypertension management techniques should improve. Since hypertension is a complex chronic disease that affects a multitude of persons, this health screening initiative will enhance awareness, and promote overall health. Many individuals have no idea what hypertension is, nor how dangerous hypertension is. Once the patient has gained awareness, initial and continued education is necessary to ensure that the patient has a clear understanding of the disease process. These measures ultimately empower the patient to want to have an active role in their healthcare. An active role will facilitate open communication between the patient and the healthcare
Hypertension is exceedingly common in the United States and can lead to heart attack, stroke, kidney disease, and eye disease. Given the importance of this condition, it is critical for patients to recognize its causes, diagnosis, and treatment. By the end of this article, you will know the
Detecting hypertension isn’t easy, and controlling hypertension is crucially devastating worldwide. High blood pressure awareness needs to be identified in a global standpoint to effectively lower hypertension. High-blood pressure treatment plan is vital, using the combination of lifestyle changes and medication adherence (Khatib et al., 2014). This paper highlights hypertension using qualitative articles, CASP Tool, matrix, and to provide the effective change to healthcare outcomes.
The only way to test for hypertension is measuring the blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer, stethoscope, and a gauge. Blood pressure is measured by two pressures; the systolic and diastolic. The systolic pressure, the top number, is the pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts. The diastolic pressure, the bottom number, measures the pressure between heartbeats. A normal blood pressure is when the systolic pressure is less than 120mmHg and Diastolic pressure is less than 80mmHg. Hypertension has been diagnosed when the systolic pressure is greater than 140mmHg and the diastolic pressure is greater than 90mmHg. The physician may also ask about medical history, family history, life
Rajeev Gupta and Soneil Guptha (2010) focused on the strategies for initial management of hypertension. The study that they conducted took place in India and proved that high blood pressure is now one of the most dangerous health issues in their country and it appears increase every year. The authors stated that “reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure can decrease cardiovascular risk and this can be achieved by non-pharmacological (lifestyle measures) as well as pharmacological means” (Gupta
Hypertension also known as high blood pressure, it is a familiar condition which is determine by the amount of heart pumps the blood and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more heart pumps the blood, the smaller the arteries gets and the higher blood pressure. According to The World Health Organization, Hypertension in leading cause of cardiovascular mortality (Carvalho, Da Costa). There are plenty of modifiable and non- modifiable risk factors that deal with high blood pressure. Modifiable includes genetic factors, race, age, gender, and ethnicity. Non-modifiable factors includes lifestyle, salt intake, wright, stress, alcohol, absence of exercise (Carvalho, Da Costa). It is important to promote health because hypertension
Globally, according to the World Health Organization statistical report in 2012, one in every three adults in 194 countries has raised blood pressure or hypertension. Hypertension is a type of cardiovascular disease that is a primary risk of health disease and stroke, which are considered to be the leading cause of death worldwide. According to a journal article published by US National Library of Medicine in 2006, risk factors for hypertension include health conditions, lifestyle, and family history. Public health care has actively taken measured through campaign to raise awareness of, prevent from, and control of hypertension since 2005 by launching the World Hypertension Day on May 13. Yet, people still fall as victims of the elevated blood pressure since it is undetectable before it is diagnosed.
The CDCP (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention) 2014 found that 1 in 3 adults have hypertension. Although public awareness is increasing less than half of all suffers report not having their condition under control (Marsh, & Rizzo, 2014).
The two major types of hypertension are primary and secondary. Primary hypertension accounts for more than 90% of all cases and has no known cause, although it is hypothesized that genetic factors, hormonal changes, and the altercations in sympathetic tone all may play a role in its development. Secondary hypertension develops as a consequence of an underlying disease or condition. The prevention and treatment of hypertension is a major public health issue. When blood pressure is controlled, cardiovascular, renal disease, and stroke may be prevented. The JCN, reported more than 122 million individuals in American are overweight or obese, consume large amounts of dietary sodium and alcohol, and do not eat adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables; less than 20% exercise regularly. Both modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of hypertension