Family Diversity

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a) Explain what is meant by the 'neo-conventional family' (2 marks)
Chester describes the neo-conventional family as a dual-earner family, in which both souses go to work. It is similar to Young and Willmott's idea of the symmetrical family.

b) Explain the difference between 'expressive' and 'instrumental' roles. (4 marks)
Expressive - 'homemaker', usually the female's role as it is more caring and nurturing and stating that they should stay at home and be a housewife and not go to work.
Instrumental – 'breadwinner', usually the male's role as it is more physical and states that men should go to work and earn money for their family in order to provide for them.

c) Identify three of the types of family diversity described by
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The New Right oppose most of the changes in family patterns such as working mothers because they believe women should stay at home and be the 'home-makers' and carry out their expressive roles, the more caring and nurturing role, also mentioned in item A. They also see lone-parent families as harmful, especially to children and argue that lone mothers are unable to discipline their children adequately and fail to give a prime example of a male role model which is why boys nowadays misbehave and result in higher rates of delinquency and threatening social stability. Amato would argue that children in a nuclear family are less likely to experience poverty, education failure, committing crimes, and health problems. Charles Murray of the New Right perspective, associated children born out of wedlock or ‘illegitimates’ with the ‘underclass’. He suggested the fathers of theses ‘illegitimates’ were ‘unskilled young men, who were unwilling to take up uninspiring work’. He believed the mothers of these ‘illegitimates’ ‘would be better off on benefits’ than marrying these ‘unskilled young men’.

However, critics argue that no evidence is given to support the idea that the children of lone-parents families are more delinquent As conservatives, they are strongly opposed to high levels of taxation and government spending and are therefore against lone-parent families as it causes an increase of the spending
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