Summary of Interpretation: Given the information provided in Interpretation A, the clinician diagnosed Kara-Lynn with a severe phonological disorder. This diagnosis was made based on evidence provided by testing results, clinician observations, and speech analyses. Kara-Lynn demonstrated phoneme collapses into /d/ in place of stops (/p/, /t/, /k/, /g/), fricatives (/s/, /z/, /θ/, /ð/), and some consonant clusters (/tr/, /gr/) across all word positions. For example, Kara-Lynn produced /diə/ for “seal,” /dædɚ/ for “treasure,” and /dədudɚ/ for “computer.” Kara-Lynn also presented with active phonological processes of final consonant deletion (/fɪ/ for “fish”), cluster reduction (/tul/ for “school”), vocalization (/ɛləkə/ for “helicopter”), and deaffrication (/ʃi/ for “cheese”). She also presented with inconsistent patterns of initial-consonant deletion (/ɑʊps/ for “house”, /ɪʒ/ for “bridge”). In most instances, Kara-Lynn presented with both final consonant deletion and another phonological process, which markedly impacted her speech intelligibility, as when she produced /lɑʊ/ for “clown,” demonstrating both final consonant deletion and cluster reduction. She also expressed a high percentage of CV (27%) and CVC (29%) syllable and word shapes, with little other variation. Analysis of Kara-Lynn’s speech sample revealed similar errors exhibited during formal assessment, including phoneme collapse into /d/, high occurrences of initial and final consonant deletion and cluster
Phonological awareness is being able to distinguish the assembly of isolated sounds that make up words and experiment with adjusting the distinct sounds known as Phonemes to form new words (Emmit, Hornsby & Wilson, 2013). Elements of phonological awareness include practice with separating, manipulating and grouping together sounds of words, in addition to exploring words and sounds in an enjoyable way using rhymes (Matheson, 2005). Phonological awareness provides innovative processes for a broader vocabulary and the ability to sound out new words (University of Oregon, 2009). The decoding process that occurs allows readers the ability to then concentrate on the meaning of what they read and improve their reading development (Reid Lyon, 1998). When teaching phonological awareness to children, teachers should work in small groups that explore only a couple of concepts at a time for instance how the mouth moves when saying a variety of isolated sounds in comparison to these phoneme sounds blended to assemble a word (Learning Point Associates, 2004). In conjunction with the familiarity of phonemes and words in phonological awareness, it is imperative to integrate this fundamental feature of reading development with understanding graphemes, and the link to letters in print to their phonemes sounds with phonics (Fellows & Oatley,
Addison needs to develop automaticity in identifying sight words. The data collected indicates several of her
Kara-lynn is a 3 year; 6 month old female presenting with a severe phonological disorder. Her results from testing indicate that her speech intelligibility is significantly reduced due to multiple phoneme collapses into /d/ of the following phonemes and consonant clusters: /p/, /g/, /k/, /s/, /z/, /θ/, /ð/, /tr/,and /gr/. In addition, the use of multiple phonological processes, including: final consonant deletion, initial consonant deletion, cluster reduction, vocalization, and deaffrication also significantly contribute to her reduced intelligibility. Her speech intelligibility in known context was calculated to be 64%, which is low for a child who is 3 years; 6 months(consider adding reference). Reduced intelligibility can impact a child’s ability to communicate wants and needs, making Kara-Lynn’s speech intelligibility an area of need.
Initial assessments revealed that Cormac has strong listening comprehension and with support and explicit instruction in decoding (print skills) and sight word recognition, Cormac has the ability to read at a higher level. His strengths in certain phonics include many of the early emergent literacy skills such as letter identification and letter sound correspondence as well as initial sound identification and phoneme segmentation. He demonstrates weaknesses in sight word automaticity, effective use of the three cueing systems, and decoding unfamiliar CVC words with short vowels as well as phonograms, phoneme blending and phoneme substitution.
We will assess this skill using The Phonological Awareness Profile by Robertson and Salter, a criterion-referenced assessment (1995). Criterion-referenced assessments are not used to compare students’ performance with each other, but rather to evaluate the student’s mastery in a specified subject. Such tests are designed to provide information for instruction as well. Only the phonological awareness subtest will be administered to Chloe. This subtest has the following tasks: rhyming, segmentation, isolation, deletion, substitution, and blending. The tasks are composed of the following:
An example of phonological awareness is a child being able to recognize that “sat” and “hat” rhyme. When a child is asked what rhymes with “sat” they should be able to produce a word such as “cat”.
Even though advanced cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid (HA) technology is making tremendous strides in the DHH community, these hearing devices still cannot completely restore normal hearing or fully represent all aspects of normal speech sounds. Therefore, children within this population are potentially at a higher risk for speech disorders, speech delays, or language difficulties. The acquisition of phonological awareness (PA) and PA abilities is an important developmental step in speech and language. Moreover, PA skills have been shown to significantly affect early literacy abilities in normal hearing children. PA is commonly defined as the conscious ability
Tyler is a 9 year old fourth grader whose independent reading level was assessed to be at the preprimer level. Initial assessments revealed that Tyler’s strengths include: using semantic and syntactic clues when reading words in context, and mastery of certain phonics elements including initial consonants, initial blends and digraphs, ending sounds, vowels, and phonograms. He demonstrated weaknesses in certain phonics applications such as blending, substitution, and vowel pronunciation, as well as comprehension and vocabulary.
The child featured in the video exhibits the first example of early language development at 56 seconds, when the child says “wif” instead of the correct adult form of with. This error falls into the phonological acquisition level. The child substitutes the sound [θ] (theta) for the sound [f]; therefore, she has made a substitution error. She cannot produce
Farrah will then practice recognizing these syllable types in contextual, shared reading both from authentic texts and Reading A-Z books that focus on particular vowel patterns. Words will be extracted from the text and studied through word building activities in order to build
Reduplicative set seems common when an infant starts learning a language. For most people, the first words that they learned are “mama” and “papa”. It is also a language development process for young children. They use reduplicative sets frequently in order to enable the child to produce polysyllabic utterances without articulating complex structures. Ingram argues that children produce those reduplicative sounds to compensate their inability to produce the whole word. So that when they develop the sophisticated sounding techniques, they would use “mommy” and “daddy” instead of “mama” and “papa”.
Engage: Student’s will all come to the gathering place, after all the student’s are sitting I will say “It’s time to review our sight words”. Then as a class we will say our 100 sight words correctly, if a word is said incorrectly I will stop and correct students. After we say our sight words I will write the sight word that we are reviewing for the day on the board. I will ask a quiet hand to tell me what that word is. Then I will instruct students to repeat after me t-h-e-y spells they, they, they. After that I will say “Now it’s time to practice our word part sounds and then I will say “Who can raise a quiet hand and tell me why we practice our word parts” After a student answers we will move on and do our word part phonics flash cards as
Student Expectation C: recognize and distinguish phonological elements of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters (K-8/ESL)
Morphological awareness supports a variety of literacy skills, including word identification, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and spelling. “Increased morphological awareness enables children to analyze the internal structure of words and decode them more quickly and accurately ("Morphological awareness: Implications," 2013).” Aaron exhibited problems with his morphological awareness in various spots throughout the language sample. For example Aaron said “And she felled in the thing”, “And the lady sawed her”. In these two utterances Aaron has shown a failure to meet and use the correct past tense morphology. Through intervention the SLP can influence the use of and knowledge of phonology and morphology on word recognition and spelling, ultimately increasing one’s morphological awareness.