Fascism And The French Architect Le Corbusier

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During the years of fascism in Italy coexisted various artistic movements; among them the rationalist architecture was configured as the most modern one, to cutting-edge, into contact with European trends of functionalism.

In the European architecture, rationalism was widely widespread in 1920-1940. Its aim was to find out a solution to the issue arisen after the industrialization and the urbanization and from the relationship between the individual and modern society. The problem was initially analysed by Walter Gropius, the founder of the Bauhaus, whose solutions lasted at the heart of the movement along with those of the Belgian Mies van der Roe and the French architect Le Corbusier. They tried to give life to architecture, prioritising the role of functionality rather than the decorative style, detaching from both the classical and romantic views.
The architectural work had to be functional, that is, to have a rational relationship with the techniques of industrial production and the needs of modern society (that is why rationalism is also said ‘indifferently functionalism’). The 'common address’ of the movement was declared in 1928 with the CIAM (the First International Congress of Modern Architecture).
The rationalists participated in various exhibitions and congresses in Europe with mixed success, but, as happened in Italy, they always had to live and deal with more traditionalist trends.

In Italy the Rationalism converged with Futurism in order to
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