Essay on Fascism as a Single Doctrine

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Fascism as a Single Doctrine As an ideology Fascism is a child of the twentieth century, which emerged out of a complex range of historical forces that were present in the period between the two world wars. Fascism was seen very much as a revolt against modernity, against the ideas and values of the Enlightenment and the political creeds that it spawned. It emerged most dramatically in Hitler’s Germany and Mussolini’s Italy, yet fascist elements can also been detected in Portugal under the dictatorship of Salazar, in Spain under Franco and in Argentina under Peron. Indeed it can be said that the Fascism that emerged under Hitler and Mussolini shared many similarities, prompting the two to join…show more content…
Since human beings are born with radically different abilities and attributes, those with rare qualities rise, through struggle, above those capable only of following. Influenced by Nietzsche’s idea of the “Ubermensch”, the “over-man”, both Hitler and Mussolini believed that a uniquely gifted individual would rise up and awaken the people to their destiny. His authority is therefore unlimited. In this way the phrase “Adolf Hitler is Germany, Germany is Adolf Hitler” was rigorously chanted at rallies, while the principle “Mussolini is always right’ became the core of Italian Fascist doctrine Fascism and Nazism also embraced an extreme version of expansionist nationalism. They did not preach respect for distinctive cultures or national traditions, but believed the superiority of one nation should be asserted over all others. In this way, Fascists and Nazis were committed to promoting, protecting and expanding the nation. Such militant nationalism was underpinned by a desire to return to a “Golden Age” of the past. Indeed, Nazis and Fascists emphasised the moral and cultural decadence of modern society, stressing the possibility of rejuvenation of the nation, like a phoenix rising from the ashes. Griffen refers to this as “palingenesis”. Both Hitler and Mussolini promoted the glories of the past reflected in the greatness of the Roman

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