Pulmonary embolism (PE) accounts for up to 30,000 deaths each year. (Beckman, 2014). It has been estimated that nearly one-third of deaths stemming from pulmonary embolism occur within the first hour. (Muckart, 2010). It can prove to be extremely difficult to diagnose pulmonary embolism due to the wide range of symptoms and presentations, or lack there of. (Muckart, 2010; Tarbox & Swaroop, 2013). Some patients with acute pulmonary embolism, possibly as many as 50%, are completely asymptomatic. (Muckart, 2010). Although the clinical presentation can vary dramatically, some of the main symptoms include tachycardia, sub-sternal chest pain, dyspnea, hypoxemia, hypotension and even possibly shock. (Tarbox & Swaroop, 2013). There are several risk factors attributed to PE, including but not limited to, recent immobilization, previous myocardial infarction or cerebral vascular accident, prior surgery or recent trauma. (Tarbox & Swaroop, 2013). Initial symptoms primarily present with severe respiratory distress, but the main adverse effects of PE effect the cardiovascular system due to the fact that the embolus causes an occlusion in the pulmonary vasculature. (Muckart, 2010). The obstruction within the pulmonary artery vastly increases vascular resistance, which results in right ventricular failure; therefore the left ventricular preload is minimized and cardiac output collapses. (Muckart, 2010).
Pulmonary embolism, what is it and how are the outcomes for this disease process and why is this disease so very important to treat as soon as possible? Well according to Medline Plus pulmonary embolism are essentially blot clots that get into the arteries of the lungs and cause a blockage which can lead to many serious problems if not treated correctly. The type of clot that is usually attributed to this disease is one that comes from deep vein thrombosis which often comes from one of the lower legs. Pulmonary Embolism: Medline Plus (2016, March 15). The lungs are a very important part of the body as important in the process cellular respiration, which with the lungs take the carbon dioxide
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is an infrequent clinical consequence of fat embolization. Embolization of marrow fat appears to be an inevitable consequence of long bone fractures. The likelihood of a fat emboli increases with the severity of the mechanism of injury (MOI). A patient’s mortality rate also increases as more physiological systems are included in the injury. The infrequency of clinical cases involving FES has limited the number of available treatments necessary for patient survival. FES, with its high mortality rates and limited patient number make its diagnosis difficult and treatments limited. In lieu of the number of documented cases of FES, could a physician, using limited knowledge of FES, be able to provide care and subsequently save a patient who suffered from FES?
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a disorder that occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein that is deep inside the body. It is mainly associated with veins in the legs, usually in the lower leg and thigh, but may occur in other parts of the body. About half of the people who have DVT show no symptoms, but people who sit for long periods, are over 60 and smoke are at higher risk, and should be aware of possible signs of a problem.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) happens when a blood clot forms in one or more of the deep veins in your body, it usually takes place in your legs. Deep vein thrombosis can cause swelling or leg pains, and you may not get any symptoms at all. Deep vein thrombosis can arise if you have certain medical conditions that affect how your blood clots. Deep vein thrombosis can also happen if you don't move for a long time. I can happen sitting in a car for too long, after surgery, following an accident, or when you are confined to a hospital or nursing home bed. DVT is a serious condition because blood clots in your veins can break loose, travel through your bloodstream and lodge in your lungs. It can block the blood flow and cause a pulmonary embolism.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is a serious medical condition that affects certain hospitalized patients. The healthcare team, especially the registered nurse, must understand what this condition entails, who it affects, and how to prevent and treat this condition. The proper knowledge and training will allow the registered nurse to be able to keep the patients safe and help prevent complication from deep vein thrombosis.
The following are symptoms according to the American Red Cross Nursing Assistant text book the patient could experience: “Slurring of words, Drooping of the features on one side of the face (for example, the eyelid and the corner of the mouth), trouble seeing in one or both eyes, weakness or numbness in an arm or leg, a sudden, severe headache, dizziness or loss of balance, confusion, or a loss of consciousness, a generally ill appearance, or abnormal behavior” (Page 91). Our text book in chapter 18 calls the weakness hemiparesis and the paralysis is called hemiplegia. These are experienced on one side of the body. F.A.S.T is a great way to check
Due to the fact Jane is having issues with her lungs, the physician took a look at her medical history. Not too long ago Jane was submitted to the ER for a broken bone, because of that incident, a blood clot in the lung was suspected. Often times clots are able to break off and travel freely in the bloodstream. Once it reaches the lung or heart, it will be too big to pass and therefore cause a blockage.
Cerebral air embolism is a rare complication that can be induced by pulmonary barotrauma, the trauma of the chest or head and iatrogenic causes such as invasive procedures or surgery. This risk increases if the patient is on positive pressure ventilation and while the pressure in the airway increased.
Patient S is a seventy-eight-year-old male who presented to the ED in Rushville on October 25th with signs and symptoms of a stroke. These symptoms were leaning to the left side, a left facial droop, weakness in the left arm, and ataxia. The patient has no history of stroke. Patient S was admitted to 4-G in Memorial for a right-sided ischemic stroke. The patient has a history of atrial fibrillation (A-Fib), hyperlipidemia, bleeding problems, hypertension, sleep apnea, and a pacemaker. Patient S lives at home with his wife. Patient S was independent before the stroke. On October 13th, the patient had surgery of lumbar stenosis on L3, L4, and L5. The patient and wife reported increased serosanguinous drainage that soaked the dressing. Patient denied fever or pain at incision site. The doctor decreased Warfarin from 5 milligrams (mg) to 2.5 mg and prescribed a full dose of aspirin.
Coronary artery disease is one of the common forms of heart disease. It’s caused by the narrowing occurs in the coronary arteries so that reduces the flow of blood to the heart tissues. Through the artery is gradually narrowing because of a substance called plaque builds up inside the wall of coronary arteries, the heart may not get enough blood to work. (coronary artery disease)If the plaque ruptures, a blood clot can form around on its surface. Over the time, the blood clot can completely block the pathway, which can’t let any blood to go through.
Blockages cause arteries to narrow and weaken resulting in inadequate blood flow to bodily tissue, which can harm major organs that receive depleted oxygen and nutrient supplies. Plaque is surrounded by a fibrous capsule that may break with increased blood flow or narrowing arteries. Immune cells trying to repair the arterial wall may result in a blot clot that seals the area. Such repairs can cause major blockages in the coronary artery supplying the heart resulting in cardiac arrest. Blockages can occur in any region of the body including the major extremities, the heart and the brain. Restricted blood flow to the heart is known as coronary artery disease and affects the blood supply to the heart muscle, resulting in Cardiac Ischemia; characterized by decreased blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle. These conditions similarly affect the brain in carotid artery disease and the limbs and lower body in peripheral artery disease. While cholesterol reduces the flexibility of the vessels high blood pressure can cause thinning of arterial walls due to friction and abrasions, creating weak areas. With aging it takes more effort for the circulatory system to transport blood causing arteries to become weak, encouraging plaque build up in combination with high fat