Determining What Biomolecules are in Peanuts and PopCorners Chips Hannah McCall Giuliana Lanz Fidah Arman February 2017 Introduction: Biomolecules are present in every living organism. Larger biomolecules (macromolecules) consists of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In layman’s terms, proteins are long chains of amino acids that have many functions such as, providing structural support and regulating many body processes. Lipids are the scientific term used for fats. There are many different types of fats, but they all share one common characteristic: They are not soluble in water. Lipids provide protection and insulation to organs and also act as an energy source. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen,
(e.) Both hypothesis could be true. Chapter 6: Lipids, Membranes, and the First Cells (#5 – 13) 5. What are “lipids?” Some lipids are liquid at room temperature whereas other lipids are solid at room temperature. What accounts for this difference? Are all fats considered to be lipids? Are all lipids considered to be fats? If not, what else besides fats are considered lipids? What distinguishes “lipids” and “phospholipids?”
The process of creating trans fat originated from the 1890s in France when chemist Paul Sabatier discovered that metal catalysts could precipitate hydrogenic reactions. This led to German chemist Wilhelm Normanns’ 1901 experimentation with hydrogenation catalysts that successfully led to the hydrogenation of liquid fat which produced semi solid fat that is now known as trans-fat. This process was adopted by many food manufacturers because of its ability to stabilize the shelf life of products it is in. With the production and use of trans fat comes some serious health risks. In the 1950s it was found that there is a clear connection between the intake of saturated fats and heart disease. After this was found there was some opposing studies that proved fats were healthy. By the 1980s it was established that a high intake of saturated fat led to a higher risk for heart problems. Because of this trans fats were used to replace saturated fats, but it was later found that trans fat held a higher risk for heart problems than saturated fats did (“Trans Fat”). Once people discovered this, a demand for healthy alternatives began and is still prevalent today.
Lipids are molecules that contain hydrocarbons and make up the building blocks of the structure and function of living cells. (Dr. Ananya Mandal, MD, 10/09/2012, Para.1) The lipids that are usually in our foods are fats and oils. Lipids are hydrophobic, meaning they have little or no affinity for water. (Neil A. Campbell,
Indicate whether each of the following statements about triglycerides is true or false. Indicate whether each of the following statements about triglycerides is true or false. 1. A triacylglycerol is composed of 3 glycerol molecules joined to a fatty acid. 2. The hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids vary in length as well as in the number and location of double bonds between the carbon atoms.
A Guide to Fats and Oils: Again with information on what is good and what to avoid.
Lipid are a macromolecule that can be used as storage when carbohydrates run out. They are often in the form of oils, waxes, and steroids. The two building blocks of lipids are fatty acids and glycerol. The three elements present in lipids are carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. In my meal lipids are not uncommon but a majority of them are the “good” kind of lipids. The polyunsaturated fat is considered the healthiest kind of lipid because it runs the lowest risk of a disease. Polyunsaturated foods examples are olive, canola, sunflower, soy, corn, nuts, seeds, and fish. (Quote http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/fats-and-cholesterol/) These type of foods are present in virtually all of my protein selections and some of these appear in the carbohydrates section of the meal. That means this diet also allows a good amount of intake of lipids but not lipids that can cause
How Omega-3s Can Benefit Everyone in the Family (Even the Dog!) In recent years, experts in the health and wellness community have debunked the old line of thinking that fats are hazardous to health. With this news, one type of fat has been recognized as being most essential to human health:
C. Diseases like diabetes and heart attacks have increased due to the over consumption of processed fats and animal products. The average American consumes more than enough protein and not enough essential fatty acids to balance
My passion for nutrition is greatly entangled with chemistry. All food is made up of molecules. The chemical structure is important, and the way a molecule interacts with other molecules sheds light on how and why our bodies function the way they do, especially in regards to nutrition. Trans fats are a good example of the necessary understanding of chemical structure, without this knowledge the effects of trans fats on the body would not be understood. Trans fats have no nutritional value and are harmful to the body even in small quantities. There are three things that are imperative to understand when looking at trans fats from a nutritional stand point: what are trans fats, why are trans fats so bad for you, and how to avoid trans fats.
Saturated fatty acids are found in animal fat. We obtain these acids from meats, such as bacon and sausage. The American Heart Association suggests that we limit the amount of saturated fat that we eat to less than 7 percent of our total calorie intake every day as it is a major contributor to heart attacks and strokes. The production of acetate (building blocks of fat) in the body is increased due to the consumption of these saturated fatty acids. As a result, the body increases its production of cholesterol which means that the fat clumps together and forms deposits throughout the system, getting lodged in blood cells and organs. This leads to a number of health risks including cardiovascular disease, an array of cancers (mainly breast and
There are different kinds of fats, these include; trans-fats, saturated fats, and unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats are considered the “good” fats while saturated fats are worse for your health. Trans-fats are industrially created by putting hydrogen into vegetable oil, which makes them unnatural and bad for your health as well. Below are molecular structures
------------------------------------------------- Animal nutrition Introduction to animal nutrition There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, protein, vitamin, and water. These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, fiber, proteins, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins. The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino
According to a Harvard Medical study, Trans Fats, which are a form of Hydrogenated oils are made by taking a molecule unsaturated fats (which are healthy) and adding hydrogen to them using heat and pressure. This allows the molecule to hold the maximum number of Hydrogen atoms possible. The synthetic molecule is unrecognized by the body; therefore, it cannot be properly digested by the body. According to the Harvard study, “This phantom fat—the worst fat for the heart, blood vessels, and rest of the body—was found in thousands of foods” and overtime Hydrogenated fats accumulate in the body and cause weight gain. They cause type II diabetes, heart disease, inflammation, and weight gain, and various forms of cancer. Nonetheless, the study also concluded that 100,000 deaths result from Hydrogenated fats each year. These fats are found everywhere: in baked goods, chips, fried foods, creams, ready-to-use dough, peanut butter, microwave popcorn, Chips Ahoy and Oreos. As stated in the article "Position of the American Dietetic Association of Food and Nutrition Misinformation”, If there is less than 0.5 grams of Hydrogenated oils, then companies are not required to have them on their labels. With the involvement of the government, Hydrogenated
For example FA such as oleic acid (OA) are completely nonpolar whereas glycerophospholipids such as PTC are polar due to the presence of the phosphate and choline molecules. These innate differences in polarity means that lipids have different solubility in polar and non-polar solvents. This property of the lipids was exploited in order to strategically isolate them by the method of solvent fractionation. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique was used to identify the types of lipids found in the adipose and brain tissue. These differential polarities in lipids enable partitioning in the stationary and mobile phases of the TLC. The extracted lipids will be compared against known lipid standards by using the Rf-value which is ratio of the distance migrated by a lipid to the solvent front. One silica plate will be immersed in solvent A to reveal the polar and nonpolar lipid constituents in the fractions. Since the solvent A has a weak polar and strong nonpolar composition, therefore all the nonpolar lipid will travelled closer to the solvent front and have an Rf-value closer to 1, while the polar SM and PTC will have an intermediate Rf-value. The other silica plate will be immersed in a highly nonpolar solvent B to further improve the partitioning resolution between nonpolar lipids such as triacylglycerol and fatty acids. Therefore the most nonpolar lipids will have an Rf-value closer to