Faulty Hill Formation Research Paper

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At the intersection of Neva Road and U.S. 36 we examined three different members, the Smoky Hill, Fort Hayes, and Codell, which belong to two different formations, Niobrara and Benton. The Smoky Hill and Fort Hayes belong to the Niobrara formation while Codell belongs to the Benton Formation. In the Niobrara’s Smoky Hill and Benton, Inoceramid clam (giant clam) fossils were found. These three formations are of Late Cretaceous.
The Smoky Hill Member is mainly a calcareous mudstone, a rock outcrop that looks and behaves mostly like mudstone, but does have some characteristics of a limestone, like fizzing. The Smoky Hill is the youngest of the members. It is fine grained, dark to light gray, mudstone which breaks in rectangular like shapes. Mudstones are deposited in low energy environments, like ocean floor, deltas, or lakes.
The Fort Hayes is in the middle of the two formations, and it is mainly made up of
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This sandstone is a dark-ish gray-brown, medium to fine grained sandstone. This sandstone was the most hidden of all all the members, making it seem more easily erodible. Sandstones are usually deposited at a higher energy because as the energy level lowers the force can not longer hold the heavier particle. So, not only is the Codell member the oldest, but it had the most energy. Sandstone can be deposited at the beach, the shore of a lake, deltas or deserts.
The Inoceramid clams found in the Niobrara formations leads to the assumption that the mudstone and limestone were deposited at the sea floor. Clams today are mostly found in the deep burrows of mud, and with the principle of uniformitarianism you can deduce that those clams were also most likely living on the sea floor. The clams living at the sea floor would be supported by the fact that the clam fossils were found in mudstone and limestone because mudstone is usually in lower energy environments like the sea
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