Features Of Syntax

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Syntax is the study of the rules governing such way in which words are combined to form of sentences in a language. It is the study of the inter-relationship between elements of sentence structure, and of the rules governing the arrangement of sentences in sequences. It is concerned with the way sentences are used by the author. If we concentrate on the structure and ordering of components within a sentence, we are studying what is technically know as the syntax of a language. It is the sequence or the ordering arrangement of elements which helps the writer to convey his intended meaning. The syntax tries to find out whether the sentences are simple, compound or complex, whether the structures are basic or derived, what their frequency is…show more content…
David Crystal says that the spoken thing …has less grammar ‘because it does not follow the rules’ which are found in writing. Speech also is in utterances/sentences, but the kind of sentence organization found in speech is different from that found in writing. Writing is ‘polished’ unlike speech. The first thing that goes for speech is grammatical reduction; there is frequent use of ellipses and contractions. In writing the reader sees only the finished product, but in both these writers’ case, there is an abundance of the unfinished or unusually finished forms, as non-clausal or grammatically fragmentary components are the hall-marks of the spoken variety. They use this in a special manner – most of their parentheses fall into this category. Syntactic non-clausal units which can be single words, phrases, or unembedded dependent clauses. The following example is quite remarkable for the features which indicate spoken…show more content…
(The Reluctant Fundamentalist 132) I replied “taken aback.” (The Reluctant Fundamentalist 146)
Going home! And in my uniform, driving the stork’s car, chatting up his son and daughter-in-law! (The White Tiger 80)
At times the noun phrase is reduced to a simple monosyllable and sometimes there is a lot of complexity – both horizontal and vertical. The use of much premodification indicates that the things/events are happening right in front of the narrator, who constantly compares the occurring events to the other things to make the communication more interesting and familiar.
Attributive adjectives, noun modifiers, compound word modifiers and relative clauses are used for various situations. Generally, a higher density of the above is not common in speech/conversation, but certain characters do use them even while speaking, which shows the Indian English users’ inclination towards bookish English.
The following example presents a series of modification, which is quite suggestive of Balram’s knowledge of India’s culture and tradition as well as his sorrowful heart due to mother Ganga’s uncleanliness.
Why I am talking of Mother Ganga, daughter of the Vedas, river of illumination, protector of us all, breaker of the chain of birth and rebirth. (The White Tiger
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