Today, electronic surveillance remains one of the most effective tools the United States has to protect against foreign powers and groups seeking to inflict harm on the nation, but it does not go without a few possessing a few negative aspects either. Electronic surveillance of foreign intelligence has likely saved the lives of many innocent people through prevention of potential acts of aggression towards the United States. There are many pros to the actions authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) pertaining to electronic surveillance, but there are also cons. Looking at both the pros and cons of electronic surveillance is important in understanding the overall effectiveness of FISA. 
Introduction: - for my research project, I would like to explore about the cyber security measures. Cybersecurity covers the fundamental concepts underlying the construction of secure systems from the hardware to the software to the human computer interface, with the use of cryptography to secure interactions. These concepts are easily augmented with hands-on exercises involving relevant tools and techniques. We have different types of computer related crimes, cybercrimes, computer related offenses, federal approaches defenses. The information resources management has the technical matters for which IT are widely known. Cyber resources and cyber power as well as cyber security. We have spent a lot of time talking about many different high level critical infrastructure protection concepts we have general rule stayed away from cyber security explaining the ins and out of how the NIPP and NRF work together to ensure that we can live our daily live in relative comfort.
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) is an Act of Congress passed in 1978 and signed by the then President Jimmy Carter. The Act stipulates the procedures to be followed when obtaining intelligence from foreign powers and agents of foreign powers both physically and electronically. The Act has been amended severally. In 2001, it was amended to involve groups and terrorist organizations not supported by foreign governments in an Act called the USA PATRIOT Act. A further amendment was done in 2007 to overhaul most of the provisions, in the Act called Protect America Act. A final amendment was done in 2008 called the FISA Amendments Act of 2008
FIPS PUB 199 Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems is the current
However, critics challenged the constitutionality of FISA and the abuse of the government power under the First, Fourth and Fith amendments of the United States Constitution. The problem led to the erection of “the wall” that inhibited the information sharing between the intelligence and law enforcement communities. The expansion of FISA after the enactment of USA PATRIOT Act significantly broadened the authority of the Executive Branch for the electronic surveillance and removed the wall, allowing the flow of information among Intelligence Community in the fight against terrorism. However, the removal of the wall led to the tension between national security and civil liberties. The FISC review has clarified the requirements for the use of intelligence under FISA to limit abuse of the Executive power. However, much is still needed to be done to properly balance the national security concerns and privacy rights. Consequently, the role of the Congress as an oversight machine is strongly required to limit instances under which the Government may conduct unlawful electronic
This article specifically explains the legal constraints that go hand in hand with information sharing while being monitored through the Patriot act. Showing how the Patriot Act itself monitors specific agencies with respect to national security. Its main subject areas deal with information sharing amongst U.S. citizens through cyber space such as internet, social networks, emails etc… But most importantly this article is a reflection of the United states government’s precautionary measures taking by our U.S. Government in order to up hold not only the safety of our citizens but our national security as
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 was a result of “congressional investigations into Federal surveillance activities conducted in the name of national security” (Intelligence Surveillance Act, n.d.). FISA allows for judicial and congressional supervision of foreign surveillance, while maintaining the “secrecy necessary to effectively monitor national security threats”, and outlines the procedures for the physical and electronic surveillance and collection of foreign intelligence information (Intelligence Surveillance Act, n.d.).
One of the first post-9/11 legislative measures addressing information security of the government assets was the E-Government Act of 2002 and specifically one of its provisions, the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002. Some of the notable purposes of this Act were to “provide a comprehensive framework
When you have a low grade the CIO of the agency’s may have to talk to congress to let them know what is going on with the agency’s The office of management and budget ( OMB) it may delay or may even cancel funding to this agency. When you talk about FISMA it was created under title lll of the E- Government act of 2002. This act requires federal agencies to give the public access to various government agencies system and data . In each of the agency will implement the policies and all of the procedures and to may sure that it is cost – effectively reduce IT security risk to an acceptable level. The IRS IT system challenge: provide desired level of public access while keeping confidential data. Federal agency security managers spend approximately 45 percent of their time on compliance issues managers with budgets more than 10 million to spend and 27 percent of their time is spend on compliance issues .The NIST computer security division has proposed the following nine steps, process for increasing the security of federal agency IT system. These are the nine steps to achieving FISMA
The 9/11 attacks on US soil changed the perception that people had about internet privacy. The attention was on consumer privacy issues resulting from commercial website operators using information gained from the use of various sites (Mathews and Catherine). However, following the attack, there was a need for the Congress to ensure that FBI can use a software program known as DCS 1000. It is important to note
Free speech is a crucial part of The United States’ foundation in history, we fought for our First Amendment rights and continue to fight for them every day. That is why the suppression and censorship of the press is so important during World War II. The censorship of the Fu-Go bombs, although not ideal, was for the greater good of America winning the war. This was an instance where censorship was done for the overall benefit of the people, but when censorship is taken too far it can have extreme repercussions.
Privacy threats are currently the biggest threat to National Security today. The threats are not only concerning to the government, however. An alarming 92% of Americans are concerned that the power grid may be vulnerable to a cyber-attack (Denholm). Although this is a more recent development to the cyber threats we have experienced, this is not the first time that privacy threats have stepped into the limelight as people are forced to watch their every online move.
In 1997 the National Security Agency (NSA) tested the Pentagon’s cyber security in an exercise named “Eligible Receiver”. Within two days of the exercise, the NSA team had penetrated the classified command network and was in complete control of network. Two years later, the United States Air Force experienced a computer breach in which huge amounts of data were being exfiltrated from research files located on airbases. “Gigantic amounts of data were being shipped out from a lot of computers in the Defense Network and from many data systems in the national nuclear laboratories of the Energy Department.” (Clarke, p. 111) File case named “Moonlight Maze”, by the FBI day-lighted two important aspects of information security. Computer specialist
The Federal Government needs to create information systems which are more effective shielded systems to protect their assets and resources at home. The foundation of any mandated cybersecurity strategies that secure our nation national security must incorporate worldwide or state local threats whether targeted toward the federal government or the private sector forces. The OPM breach highlighted the insufficient and inconsistence security approaches the federal government has already used in modernizing the existing cybersecurity policies. There is a requirement for the United States government to institute polices that would incorporate and implement new government cybersecurity structures and centralized the protection of their assets to avert future breaches (Source). Examining the inadequacies in the current national cybersecurity policies and regulations is disappointing as OPM choice to implement these mechanisms and the current authoritative propositions to cybersecurity must change immediately. It was reported that OPM only spent $2 million in 2015 to avert pernicious digital assaults, while the Department of Agriculture spent $39 million. The Department of Commerce, Department of Education, and Department of Labor likewise invested more money in cybersecurity resources than the Office of Personnel Management. The Small Business Administration devoted a similar amount into cybersecurity to recognizing, examining, and alleviate any cyber breaches as OPM, however
Every state in the nation should have a comprehensive IT security policy due to the “growing array of state and non-state actors are compromising, stealing, changing, or destroying information and could cause critical disruptions to U.S. systems” ("Cyberspace policy RevIew", 2016). Because of “ the dual challenge of maintaining an environment that promotes efficiency, innovation, economic prosperity, and free trade while also promoting safety, security, civil liberties, and privacy rights” ("Cyberspace policy RevIew", 2016). It is the responsibility of state and the federal government “ to address strategic vulnerabilities in cyberspace and ensure that the United States and the world realize the full potential of the information technology revolution” ("Cyberspace policy RevIew", 2016).