The scope of this research is focused only on FGM for among all the kinds/types of mutilation, FGM are the most studied and controversial kind/type of mutilation.
12/19/2017 Persuasive Essay Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Throughout history, there has been a controversial argument on whether female genital mutilation should be banned from Africa. Some people describe female genital mutilation or FGM as a violation of women’s rights and others view it as served for a religious purpose having to do with the Islamic holy book, the Qur’an. Female Genital Mutilation is the removal of all or part of the external parts of the female genitalia. There are three different types of FGM; the first type of FGM is the Sunna Circumcision which is the removal of the tip of the clitoris. The second type is Clitoridectomy which is the removal of the entire clitoris and the adjacent labia. The third type is Infibulation which is the removal of the clitoris and the entire labia including the labia majora and minora. After the removal of the entire labia, the joining of the scraped sides are brought together using thorns or catgut, leaving only a small portion open for menstruation and urinating. Africa has the highest rates of FGM being performed. About 100 million women and girls are affected by FGM and at least 3 million girls are at risk undergoing this process every year. FGM is usually carried out by an elderly woman who is paid fees from the family of the girl undergoing this process (P.a.p.-Blog par. 2, 4). Female Genital Mutilation is usually performed on girl between the ages of three and adulthood. According to the UNICEF or United
Now that we know little about the mutilation process these females undergoes; let’s ask ourselves “Why would someone ever agree to conduct such procedure on their own will?” If mutilation emphasizes the clear violation of human rights, why is this procedure being implemented in many different countries? Well, this issue is due to different ethical, and moral perspective; one may believe that female mutilation is morally right; while others may think it’s a violation of human rights. Let’s first explore the ethical theories on this
FGM are “procedures which involve partial or total removal of external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital or organs for non-medical reasons” World Health Organisation (2016) and encompasses four different forms: Clitoridectomy (removal of clitoris), excision (removal of clitoris and labia minora and with/without the labia majora), infibulation (narrowing of the vaginal opening) and other non-medical harmful procedures i.e. piercing (NHS 2016). Girls and women can be vulnerable to FGM due to their age as FGM is largely carried out on young girls, the association that FGM is a cultural tradition and it is expected for all girls and women to have FGM within these communities and a lack of education for
For class today, we read two brief articles on genital mutilation. In class, we also watched V-Day: Until the Violence Stops. Female genital mutilation is the removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. It is performed with a blade with or without anesthesia. I have been aware of the idea of male circumcision before, but I had honestly never thought about female circumcision before the reading. It shocked me to learn that certain cultures did not want women to have sexual desires. As a teenager growing up I did not know enough about my own body, I could only imagine what it was like to not understand your own body and not understand why your community would want you to have a FGM procedure done. Leyla Hussein explained that she
In an extensive article, by Richard Griffith he reinstates information from the WHO Organization that “It is estimated that 100–140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of female genital mutilation (FGM).” (World Health organization, 2008). It is a horrible practice in which young females between the ages of infant and fifteen years of age, undergo a surgery for the alteration, removal or partial removal of their genitalia for religious or cultural reasoning’s. If that isn’t terrifying enough, understand that this takes place against the will of the receiving party. This is reason by itself, along with many reasons to stands up against FGM, as it should be outlawed entirely. But, before we can establish the barrier between necessary and criminal in discussion with this topic, we must look at the research and history of this practice, and let the statistics speak for its self.
Today I will explain what FGM is; what are the effects of the procedure and why it is still being performed today.
and can cause bleeding, chronic pain, and childbirth complications and newborn death. Estimating 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are living with the consequences of FGM.
In certain societies and culture, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a rite of passage and the young girls are aware of the procedure (Nawal, 2008, pp. 135-139). Furthermore, the societies and cultures who partake in this procedure as a rite of passage, religious reasons, so the girls will not be promiscuous before they get married, so the men’s penis does not fall off, and men in certain societies would prefer their wife to be circumcised (Mascia-Lees 2010, pp. 159). Even though certain societies and cultures have their reasoning for performing Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), FGM can cause medical, psychological, and pyscho-sexual consequences (Reyners, 2004, pp. 242-251). According to Reyners (2004) most of the girls and women who had Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) type three conducted, they tend to experience heavily affected reproductive and urological functioning. Furthermore, according to Reyners (2004) also recommended if any woman is pregnant and has had any form of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) done, they should be monitored for their safety as well as the infants.
Female Genital Mutilation Carolina Macias HSC 425 Matza-Fall 2016 Word Count- 1537 Abstract/Introduction The World Health Organization, also known by the acronym WHO, has defined female genital mutilation as “procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.” FGM (acronym for female genital mutilation) is highly prevalent in Africa and the Middle East. An estimated 200 million and counting have been victims of this practice (UNICEF New York, 2016). In the past 20 years the tradition of female circumcision has received a lot of attention from the public and mass media and has been at the center or controversial debate (Kalev, 2004). Why? Because female circumcision is extremely detrimental to a female’s health as it causes long-term and short-term health complications and psychological damage to the victim. This research paper will discuss these topics and reassure the reader that female genital mutilation has and serves no benefits and is ultimately a violation of human rights.
In this assignment my aim is to discuss and evaluate the role of the nurse in safeguarding individuals that are at risk of undergoing female genital mutilation (FGM). My presentation group decided on the subject matter as it was felt that it was being reported in the national press and
Female Genital Mutilation is a practice in which external portions of female genitalia are removed for non-medical, cultural reasons. In many countries and cultures, young girls are forced to go through this procedure before getting married, based on the belief that the practice will keep them pure and virgins. This practice, set in place by a patriarchal hegemonic system, controls and decides the lives of any girls in a lot of places. Often times, these lives are ended because the practice is non-medical, not safe, and definitely not even done the right way.
Even though FGM is a controversial topic and many oppose it I feel Ahanonu and Victor were able to effectively analyze their audience. The authors were able to appeal to the readers especially mothers by eliciting feelings through connotative meanings and emotional tone (Purdue OWL: The Rhetorical Situation). When reading this article I thought about what I would do if I were in this situation. Whether I agree with FGM or not the authors made me feel empathy for the mothers and feel that they are doing what they think is best for their daughters. Data analyzed from the study showed that 44.2% of the mothers felt by getting their daughters circumcised they were preventing them from becoming promiscuous, preserving their virginity, preventing premarital sex and increasing their chances of marriageability. 30.5% of the mothers believed getting circumcised would promote their daughters to be faithful to their spouses (Ahanonu and Victor,
According to the article THE IMPACT OF FGM it states ¨According to the WHO, women who have experienced the most extreme form of FGC (infibulation) are 70% more likely to experience post-partum hemorrhage, and 30% more likely to require a caesarean section.”.The women who have been through FGM experienced an increased risk of childbirth complications. Also, according to the article THE IMPACT OF FGM it states that “The knock-on effects of leaving school at a young age are well-documented and include earning less, and having less control and agency over life choices including marriage, pregnancy, and family planning.”. The woman who has been through FGM had to leave school at an early age and as they miss the opportunity of education they have less control over their lives because women with no education cannot make living so they will have to marry at a young age. To summarize FGM impacted a lot of women (girls) lives and I believe that because of FGM there are women whose lives have been ruined because they had to undergo it at a young age or were forced to
Female Genital Mutilation also known as FGM, female circumcision is a procedure which involves the total or partial removal of the external genitalia for traditional or non-therapeutic reasons. Is FGM morally justified? Should his practice be eradicated because of the harmful nature, or should it be upheld due to the