In 2003, President George Walker Bush and his administration sent the United States military to war in Iraq to overthrow Saddam Hussein, Iraq’s ruler and dictator, who murdered over 600,000 innocent people, and “...used chemical weapons to remove Kurds from their villages in northern Iraq…” (Rosenberg 2). According to the Department of Defense’s website, the war removed Saddam Hussein from power, ending an era when “Iraqis had fewer rights than when its representatives signed the Human Rights Declaration in 1948” (1). American blood, money, and honor was spent in what was allegedly a personal war and perhaps a fight to gain oil and natural resources, but only history may reveal the truth. Although the Iraq War removed tyrant Saddam Hussein from power, the failures of the war dwarf the successes.
The U.S is known for its liberty and equality. However, the Supreme Court once had to decide on the rights for African Americans. Since the abolishment of slavery, one court case before the Supreme Court sided against the African American plaintiff fighting for equal rights. In this case the plaintiff, Homer Plessy was arguing his right to ride in a "white only" train car. Unfortunately, he lost his case in Plessy vs Ferguson. Decades later, another plaintiff, Oliver Brown, also took a case before the Supreme Court. Conversely, in this case, the Supreme Court sided with the plaintiff in Brown vs Board of Education. This decision began the integration of schools. Despite the fact that these two cases took place almost 60 years apart, they both dealt with a similar issue.
The Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson is known for having established the precedent of “separate but equal.” The case originated in Louisiana and was specifically made to the separate passenger cars that were for the black and white races. The Supreme Court, in this case, upheld the right of Louisiana to separate the races and “this decision provided the legal foundation to justify many other actions by state and local governments to socially separate blacks and whites” (Zimmerman, 1997). It was not until the famous Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954 that the highest court in the land outlawed the principal of segregation and the concept of “separate but equal.”
The invasion and the war in Iraq remains a continuous topic of divisiveness and sensitivity in today’s America. One of the negative evaluation of the war is attributed to the false impression of the length of the war which lasted seven years, not six months as presumed in 2003. As the invasion initiated, the ideologies of American government then failed to perceive the large number of troops required, casualties and the financial toll in the interest of the preventive war doctrine. However, when weighing the failures of this war, there are successes brought home that relate mostly to the lessons the American military and the government learned with the use of counterinsurgency tactics after “winning the hearts and minds” of Iraqis (Young). Nevertheless, with evaluation through levels of analysis, the accomplished agenda of ending Saddam Hussein’s regime justifies success and failure, mutually.
Ferguson was approximately 50 miles away from Charlotte and Cornwallis forces. (U.S. Army War College, 1928) However, Ferguson received further messages the Patriot militia were close to his position. Ferguson thought they were at a disadvantage at Tate’s plantation and left. (Wicker, 1998) Ferguson decided to make his defensive stand at Kings Mountain with its steep wooded slopes provided a favorable natural defense. The summit was moderately flat and clear, and had an abundance of trees that provided timbers to build wooden barricades. (U.S. Army War College, 1928) Yet, “Ferguson despised cutting down trees to use as barricades.” (Wicker, 1998) As an alternative, he placed the wagons and his men’s baggage equipment as barricades alongside the mountain’s northeast crest. (Wicker, 1998) Ferguson thought he had the vantage point employing a 360° degree perimeter defense overlooking down from the crest of the mountain. Campbell received information from the local population that Ferguson had established his camp at Kings Mountain. Campbell moved quickly, assembled 900 of his best sharpshooters, mounted their horses, and started on their long night ride in the rain to stop Ferguson from reaching Cornwallis’s
The Supreme Court Case of Plessy versus Ferguson in 1896 is one of the most known cases that later influenced future decisions of equality, race and freedom. The plaintiff Homer Adolph Plessy was born March 17, 1862 in New Orleans, Louisiana. He was a successful shoemaker who planned an act of civil disobedience against the system of racial segregation. Plessy was seventh eights white and only one eight African American. His great grandmother was from Africa and according to the state of Louisiana and the law he was classified black regardless of his light skin appearance. John Howard Ferguson was an American lawyer who was a judge in Louisiana. He was born on June10, 1838 in Chilmark, Massachusetts. Involved in the Knights of Pythias he also
In the consequence for Reconstruction, which ended 1877, those southern state legislatures once more became—as they stayed in the North—“white man's administrations. ” the new state Assemblies sanctioned jim crow laws to legitimately isolate the races Also force inferior citizenship upon african Americans. Upheld by criminal penalties, these laws made differentiate schools, parks, sitting tight rooms, and other isolated government funded lodging. Done its decision in the social equality instances from claiming 1883, the court settled on clear that those equivalent insurance statement of the fourteenth alteration furnished no assurance against private isolation. It might Right away a chance to be required will standard for the thing that security
When this case was taken to state level, it sadly lost the case. They referred to the Plessy vs. Ferguson case. That case had allowed had allowed the separation between black and white. The Plessy Vs. Ferguson case stated that the separation was not violating any law or amendment. The state was allowing the separation because they said “It will better preparing the children for when they get later treated like this when there grown up." During this time, African American weren't allowed to eat in the same restaurants, drink from the same water fountains, or even ride in the same car train as white people. After losing the state case, Oliver and the NAACP didn't stop there. They took it to the next level. Oliver Brown and the NAACP took the
Throughout the first half of the Twentieth Century, American statutes and judicial precedents operated to preserve advantages of the white citizens of the country. In 1954 the Supreme Court, made a profound decision in Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, which brought about a fundamental change in the legal and racial organization of American society. Mr. Oliver L. Brown’s attorneys convinced the justices to overturn the precedent in Plessy v. Ferguson, in order to permit Mr. Brown’s daughter Linda to attend a white elementary school that was seven blocks from her home instead of going ten blocks to get on a bus to go to a segregated elementary school. This unanimous decision swept aside the legal principle of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
In 1896 is was a landmark in the constitution law was case by the us Supreme Court was considered the constitutionality. Plessy vs Ferguson was an unshared in the era of legally sunctioned of racial segregation. On june 7 of 1892 he purchased a first class ticket for a trip between New Orleans and Covington La. Which banned in the slaver. In the court of the of Justice.In the 1892 Pleesy was refuse to sit on a Jim Crow car was breaking a Louisiana law. In 1954 Then fight in 1954 it was Brown vs Board of the education of the capital of kansas is Topeka in the 1954. When time the Plessy vs the Ferguson is the battle of the Supreme Court of the Washington Monument. When the plessy won on the first debate. Then his die on
Millions of people go to court to fight for something they believe in or disagree with, but don't get their voices heard. The constitution made amendments to ensure fairness and it's not right if we don't have those fairnesses. In Brown v board of education and Plessy v Ferguson they were fighting to have rights and fairness, but Plessy v Ferguson got their rights heard right away and the Brown v board of Education didn't get there voices heard in till many years after they went to court. In the 1890's Plessy got on the wrong train car and decided he didn't want to move. The authorities said that Plessy would have to pay $25 or go to jail for 20 days, so when he refused they put him in jail. This violated the 14th amendment because, its unequal that white children had better things. In 1950-1951 segregation was a big problem even with little kids going to different schools just because of the
In the court case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the supreme court ruled that “separate but equal” was allowed. This allowed for the continuation of racism in public industries, such as the education system (separate schools) , transportation system, and food services. This ruling brought the rise of Jim Crow laws in the South and continued to sanction segregation for 50 years. In the North, this ruling instantiated laws that required racial segregation, such as separate but equal schools. Overall, this law prolonged racism and had a very negative effect on coloreds in America in the period after its ruling.
In this book, Barber and Zelter use a lot of different sources whether it be biblical or historical. There are uses of bible verses are there to ground their arguments on a religious basis and historical references such as Martin Luther King or the court case Plessy v. Ferguson to give us historical context. Their sources also consist of the North Carolina Constitution and Declaration of Right, to show the hypocrisy of the political officials that govern. He uses all these sources to explain where the power really lies, and this is the power of the people. They use secondary source with news are article of the event in North Carolina in the early 2000s and primary source with speeches from MLK and Supreme Court cases. Barber offers sound evidence
detainees once they disappeared into the hundreds of secret detention centers known as "pits" and "black holes". Aside from spreading confusion among guerrilla organizations, planting fear in Argentine society, destroying incriminating evidence, and misleading world opinion, the disappearances also served as a remembrance of the ‘Dirty War’. The armed forces did their best to influence national memory by impressing, the dirty war had been a legitimate antirevolutionary war against a guerrilla insurgency supported by Cuba and the Soviet Union. The military supported their actions by stating that, the military had put Argentina on the right track, they had halted the political disintegration, stimulated the economy, and combated corruption