Fiber Optics

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Fiber optics is a cable that is quickly replacing out-dated copper wires. Fiber optics is based on a concept known as total internal reflection. It can transmit video, sound, or data in either analog or digital form . Compared to copper wires it can transmit thousands of times more data (slide 2) . Some of its general uses are telecommunications, computing, and medicine. <br> <br>The very first "fiber" was made in 1870 by the British physicist John Tyndal. In this experiment that he showed to the Royal Society he placed a powerful waterproof lamp inside a tank of water, which had closed pipes coming out the sides. When he opened up the pipes so water could flow, to the amazement of the crowd, the light totally internally reflected inside…show more content…
If you want a short-range network without monstrous bandwidth needs, you can save money and get the multimode. On the other hand, if you want a large network with a large bandwidth, you will need to fork out the money for the singlemode. <br> <br>Fiber optic cable is constructed with an industry standard with respect to that the cladding on all cable, whether single or multimode, must be 125 mm. (slide 8) This is done so the same tools can be used for both types of cables. Fiber cables are also bunched, much like their copper counterparts are. Individual cables are called simplex, double cables are called duplex, and four cables wrapped together are quadplex. Wires with more than four cables are also available. Some of the possible ones are groups of twelve, thirty-six, and forty-eight. <br> <br>Another important aspect of fiber optics is attenuation, which is decrease in power from one point to another. (Slide 9) Attenuation is measured in dB/km and a 3.0 dB/km loss corresponds to about a 50% loss in 1 km. One of the major advantages of fiber over copper is lower attenuation. Copper wires need repeaters about every three miles, but fiber can go without a repeater for sixty miles. <br> <br>There are two types of attenuation: intrinsic and extrinsic. One of the two types of intrinsic attenuation is scattering, which makes up about 96% of the intrinsic. This is caused by Rayleigh scattering in which light rays collide with atoms in the cable and
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