Essay on Fibrous Root Systems

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Exercise 31 Answers to Questions
1. a. How do taproot and fibrous root systems help plants survive and reproduce?
b. Would one type of root system provide an adaptive advantage in a particular environment such as a rain forest? tap—more volume
2. a. In the space below, sketch the root tips that you examined. In which root tip are cells largest? In which area are they smallest?
b. Aside from their size, do all cells in the root tip appear similar? Why is this significant? No, because different cells have different functions; however, the meristem cells should all appear similar.
3. a. Why do you think root hairs occur only in the zone of maturation? so they won't get sheared off as root grows through the soil
b. What is the
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How does the arrangement of vascular bundles differ in stems of monocots as compared to dicots? monocots—vascular bundles arranged "randomly"; dicots—vascular bundles in ring
9. How is secondary growth different from primary growth? primary meristem produces growth in length, not girth
10. a. How do you account for seasonal production of different-sized cells? water availability
b. What is the common name for secondary xylem? wood
c. What is "grain" in wood? layers of xylem
d. Aside from conducting water and minerals, what is another important function of secondary xylem? support
11. a. What are the large cells in oak wood? vessel elements
b. What is their function? conduct water; support
c. Which type of wood do you think transports more water per unit area, wood of pine or oak?
Why? oak—vessels are larger conduits for water
12. Is the amount of cork similar in 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old stems? If not, how does it differ? probably not—there is more in the 3-year-old stem
13. How does a lenticel differ from the remainder of the periderm? intercellular spaces
14. a. What is the function of the stomata? gas exchange
b. Do epidermal cells of leaves have a cuticle? Why is this important? yes, to retard water loss
c. Why are chloroplasts concentrated near the upper surface of the leaf? more light available at upper surface
d. What is the function of air spaces near the lower surface of the leaf? more stomata equals more
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