Finally, the principle of justice is also applicable here. The Belmont Report addresses the

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Finally, the principle of justice is also applicable here. The Belmont Report addresses the principle of justice in terms of who ought to receive the benefits of research and bear its burdens. (Belmont Report, 1979). The benefit to society is always the focus of justice in medical research, not the benefit to the subject. It represents both aspects of utilitarianism, the benefit to society as a whole, as well as egalitarianism, the notion that equals ought to be treated equally. An injustice occurs when some burden is imposed unduly. It is important to insure that those who are already burdened are not overburdened and the group participating in medical research should receive the benefit of it. The selection of research subjects must be…show more content…
Justice is further illustrated in Grimes. Researchers used economically vulnerable children as their subjects. The court concluded that the research was inappropriate and unethical and emphasized the importance of ensuring the ethical treatment of humans enrolled in research, especially members of vulnerable populations. So too, Cincinnati represents a further discussion of vulnerable groups being taken advantage of. In Cincinnati, cancer patients, who were primarily indigent, poorly educated African-Americans, were exposed to large doses of radiation. It is further unjust because the purpose of the research was to benefit the military, not the subjects. The tests were not conducted to determine the effect of radiation on persons with cancer, but rather just the effect of radiation on humans in the event that members of the military were exposed in a nuclear attack. The use of this already burdened group without any rational relationship to the research being conducted was entirely unjust especially when the population used was not the population intended to receive the benefit. Finally, the notion of justice is also present in the Tuskegee study. The research used disadvantaged, uneducated, rural men to study the untreated course of a disease that is and was by no means confined to that population. The subjects were

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