First and Second-Order Cybernetics

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ECOSYSTEMIC PSYCHOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 2 1. HOW IS REALITY SEEN BY EACH SPECIFIC APPROACH? Before attempting to describe differences and similarities regarding how these two approaches view reality, the best place to begin is to define “reality”. According to Reader’s Digest Universal dictionary (1987; 1278), reality is that which exists objectively and in fact. In philosophy, it is the sum of all that is real, absolute, and unchangeable. In other words, it is something that occurs in real life and is comparable by facts, according to Baron (2012). These definitions suggest the idea that reality is something that anyone can notice at any given time as some type of actuality or fact. However, another way of looking at reality, according to…show more content…
The idea of pathology is related to a framework which in turn is adopted by culture and society. Furthermore, it is important to reiterate that the labels “healthy” and “dysfunctional” are attributions that are made consistent with one’s personal values and those of the society in which one lives. In a similar way, the experience of a problem only exists relative to a given framework of reasoning. Added to this, the idea of healthy or not healthy is related to how the family view themselves. In other words, the main concern of the therapist is how families do best what it is they want to do rather than with what they are doing. Health is defined as the family’s success in functioning to achieve its own goals. These goals and this structure is determined by the family itself and not by the therapist. With regards to diagnosis, a problem is only valid if the client him/herself sees it as such. Thus, there is an emphasis on the way the client defines it. How the client communicates about his/her problem is more important than the problem itself. 3. HOW DOES EACH SPECIFIC APPROACH DEAL WITH THERAPY? The first order approach to therapy, according to Baron (2012), emphasises the degree of openness or closedness in relation to the boundaries, that is, to what degree is information
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