Fluctuating Fertility Essay examples

2563 WordsMay 7, 201411 Pages
1. (25%) Below are census data showing labor force participation of women in the U.S., overall and by age group, from the Censuses of 1950 to 2010. Participation Rate (percent) 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Female Total (16+) 33.9 37.7 43.3 51.5 57.5 59.9 58.6 20 to 24 years 46.0 46.1 75.5 68.9 71.3 73.1 68.3 25 to 34 years 34.0 36.0 45.0 65.5 73.5 76.1 74.7 35 to 44 years 39.1 43.4 51.1 65.5 76.4 77.2 75.2 45 to 54 years 37.9 49.8 54.4 59.9 71.2 76.8 75.7 55 to 64 years 27.0 37.2 43.0 41.3 45.2 51.9 60.2 65 years and over 40.8 27.1 19.8 8.1 8.6 9.4 13.8 Graph two sets of labor force participation profiles for women aged 20-64, where age group is on the…show more content…
2. (10%) Claudia Goldin, in her paper on “The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women’s Employment, Education, and Family,” emphasizes the importance of women’s expanded horizons. She notes that “By expanded horizons, I mean that women more accurately anticipated their future work lives.” I also discussed in class evidence pertaining to both the accuracy and the levels of women’s work expectations between the late 1960s and the late 1970s/early-mid 1980s. Given the changing work expectations that Goldin and I discussed, what does human capital theory suggest should be the likely consequences for women’s education, occupations, on-the-job training, and earnings? Do data on these variables support the implications of human capital theory? As women increase their attachment to the job, they are expected to be work more in the labor market. The human capital perspective focus this on three aspects which all correlated to the continuity of participation of women in labor market. First, women who experience a discontinuous working period due to child may result less working experience, this would cause them to have less training on the job and therefore give them a lower earning. Second, if women leave the labor market periodically, it would result a depreciation of human capital, which means women who come back to the labor
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