Fluoride Essay

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Although fluorine is relevant to human nutrition, excessive doses had been reported in the groundwater of more than 200 cities worldwide (Kafri et al., 1989, Ayoob and Gupta, 2006, Edmunds and Smedley, 2013). Fluoride in the groundwater originate from sedimentary, crystalline rocks to volcanic tephra and ash (Battaleb-Looie et al., 2012, Gaciri and Davies, 1993, Cordeiro et al., 2012). In volcanic towns, during the circulation of groundwater, fluoride usually escaped from devitrified lavas, dissolves within the rocks and transferred by fumaroles causing an increase in the water fluoride concentration (Oruc, 2008). People living in Turkish providence of Isparta utilise Egirdir and Golcuk Lake which is an active volcanic region. Their…show more content…
Interestingly, the homogeneity of the adopted methods among studies makes findings comparable. Fluoride concentration in the nail clippings reflects the average fluoride intake and plasma concentration during the period when the clipping was formed (Whitford, 2005). Nail sample represents a suitable biomarkers of acute (Buzalaf et al., 2004, Corrêa Rodrigues et al., 2004), sub-chronic (Kokot and Drzewiecki, 2000, Buzalaf et al., 2006) and chronic (Levy et al., 2004, Feskanich et al., 1998a, Buzalaf et al., 2011) fluoride exposure. The concentration of fluoride in the nail clipping is directly related to the average fluoride exposure from drinking water, toothpaste and the work environment that occurred during a 2 weeks’ period or more and not to recent (Whitford et al., 1999, Taves, 1968).
Considering the large amount of sample provided by the toenails, together with their faster growth rate, as well as the fact that collecting fluoride from toenails are non-invasive manner and resistance to degradation during storage period, big toenails are more suitable biomarkers of fluoride intake (Vilhena, 2008, Levy et al., 2004, Kokot and Drzewiecki, 2000). Although in Whitford method, nails’ cleaning with deionized water has no effect on resulting fluoride concentration (Whitford et al., 1999), there is a chance of fluoride uptake from external sources (Pessan and Buzalaf, 2011) which may affect its specificity. Additional limitations for the use of
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