Fluoride Ions And Its Effect On Health And Excess Concentration

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Fluoride is one of the important heavy metal present in water and waste water. Fluoride ions in water exhibits unique properties, as itsoptimum dosein drinking water is advantageous to health and excess concentration beyond the prescribed limits affects health(5). Also Fluoride ions are extremely toxic to human body. A fluoride ion is attracted by positively charged calcium in Teeth and Bones, due to its strong electronegativity. Major health problems caused by fluoride are dental fluorosis, teeth mottling, skeletal fluorosis, and deformation of bones occur in children as well as adults (5). The waste water also containing high concentration of fluoride ions that may discharged from mines, semiconductor factories, and
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diffusion or transport of fluoride ions to the external surface of the adsorbent from bulk solution across the boundary layer surrounding the adsorbent particle, called external mass transfer; ii. adsorption of fluoride ions on to particle surfaces; iii. theadsorbed fluoride ions probably exchange with the structural element inside adsorbed fluoride ions are transferred to the internal surface for porous materials (intra particle diffusion). There are various types of adsorbents usedin this study to remove the fluoride. Each adsorbent having different characteristics and removalof the fluoride contamination is different. Successful and the cost effective removal of contaminants from waste water by adsorption requires optimal operation units. To achieve this, design parameters must be obtained through performance of adsorption equilibrium and in some cases kinetic experiments are used. One such equilibrium data is generated, is a common practice to validate various isotherm models which give the best description of the experimental results. The frequently tested isotherm models are the Langmuir, two site Langmuir, freundlich, Langmuir- freundlich, redlich- Peterson, toth and dubini-radushketvich(8).
Titanium hydroxide derived adsorbents
Wajima et al. investigated the adsorption of Titanium hydroxide for fluoride removal.Titanium hydroxide derivedadsorbents was prepared by using titanium oxysulfate Tioso4 xH2 (nacalai tesqne,
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