Fluoride Research Paper

Decent Essays
Relevant history of understanding of nutrient
Fluoride is a naturally occurring nutrient that can be found in food and drinks especially in water, however in extremely small amounts
Although fluoride can be classified as a beneficial nutrient, it has not been categorised as an essential nutrient by multiple nutritional authorises.
A set recommendation for fluoride intake was implemented by Australia and New Zealand in 2005.
Fluoride has the ability to prevent tooth decay and this is extremely important therefore in a controlled manner many countries including Australia have added fluoride to their drinking water
Baines, J., Foley, M., Spencer, A.J., Peres, M., Mueller, U., Cunningham, J., Gnanamanickam, E. and Amarasena, N.,
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and Smith, J.L., 2012. Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Cengage Learning.
Atkinson, S.A., Abrasms, S.A. and Allen, L.H., 1997. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride, standing committee on the scientific evaluation of dietary reference intakes, food and nutrition board, institute of medicine.

Consider metabolism of nutrient within body eg how is it transported, stored, what metabolic processes regulate action, including consideration of eg hormones / active-inactive forms, etc
Fluoride is bound strongly to calcified tissues such as bones and teeth and can be delivered around the body by blood, as it is bound to plasma proteins in either an ionic fluoride or hydrofluoric acid.
Before absorption of fluoride occurs it needs to be hydrolysed by either protease or pepsin
When fluoride is digested orally and is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tracts, 80% or more can be absorbed when there's a lack of high dietary concentration of certain cations such as calcium, which fluoride can form an insoluble compound and poor absorption can occur
Fluoride levels in the body are not homeostatically regulated as the amount of fluoride in tissues and in body fluids are correlated to the amount of fluoride in the body over a long period of
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However, during pregnancy and lactation the requirement for fluoride does not change as fluoride is not an essential nutrient.
Gibney, M.J., Vorster, H.H. and Kok, F.J. eds., 2002. Introduction to human nutrition (pp. 100-113). Oxford: Blackwell science.
Absorption of nutrient (where, how, transport mechanism across gut wall, how is it transported once across the gut wall? etc)
Fluoride can be easily and quickly absorbed as it is a soluble nutrient, when consumed as toothpaste or as fluoridated water and can can circulate the extracellular fluid.
This nutrient can be absorbed rapidly through the stomach using passive infusion, this occurs because fluoride tends to exist as hydrofluoric acid than ionic fluoride.
However if fluoride is bound to proteins in its organic form then absorption of this nutrient is poor.
When fluoride is digested from food, then absorption decreases to about 50% to 80%
Fluoride can be subjected to tubular reabsorption via the glomerular capillaries as it has the ability to be filtered without any constraints.
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