fMRI, THE NEW ASPECTS OF DECEPTION DETECTION
If deception becomes human behaviour, lie detection will play key role of proving their deceit. For a century, researchers studied significantly about lying and deception as the human behaviour in scientific, philosophical and legal aspects (Ford, 2006) and attempted to create the instruments to detect lies. Many techniques were developed to detect deception and determine the truth (Kleinmuntz and Szucko, 1984 cited in National Research Council, 2003).
In early of the 20th century, lie detection was invented by using physiological responses as indicators of deception, known as the polygraph (National Research Council, 2003). Polygraph has been used in many objectives, for example,…show more content… Firstly, the definition of human deception will be demonstrated followed by the historical background of lie detection and development of the polygraph. After that theoretical and drawbacks of polygraph are reviewed. Moreover, fMRI will be explained in scientific aspect. Finally, the evaluation of fMRI on human deception and its benefits will be shown to complete the idea of the new aspect of detection deception.
What is the Human Deception?
Many researchers used to define deception in various definitions. For example, Mitchell, 1986 defines deception as “a false communication that tends to benefit the communicator” which is a broad meaning and describes many acts as deceit. Nonetheless, there are many people who disagree with this (Mitchell, 1986 cited in Vrij, 2008, 12). While, Vrij, 2008 defines lying as “an intentional act also implies that if two people contradict each other, this does not automatically mean that one of them is lying” (Vrij, 2008, 14). Thus, it can be explained that perception depends on action’s purpose of communicator and also the perception of the receiver.
A History of Lie Detection and Development of Polygraph
In China, 1000 B.C., the lie detection was logically used for the first time. Suspects were tested by filling their mouths with a handful of dry rice and, then, it is spat out. If