Food Production : A Essential Component Of The Earth 's Ecosystems

1734 Words Apr 14th, 2016 7 Pages
1. Introduction
Fresh Water is a fundamental component of the earth’s ecosystems. It is required for food production, different domestic uses, industry, etc. All forms of life are in need to water to survive.
Egypt is located in an arid zone, which has small rainfall and the desert covers the most country area. It has an area of about 1 million km2. The total cultivated area was about 4% of the total area of the country in 2013, (FAO). Water resources in Egypt are limited to the quota from the Nile River, ground water abstraction from shallow reservoirs in the Nile valley, Nile delta, the coastal strip, and the deep ground water in the eastern desert, western desert, and Sinai. Beside few amounts of rainfall and flashfloods. The non-conventional water resources include reuse of agricultural drainage water, treated waste water and the desalination of seawater and brackish water as well. (FAO). Agriculture is considered the main sector that consumes water in Egypt, followed by domestic, industrial, and tourism but with a great gap. Another two sectors should be considered users not consumers; navigation and hydropower generation.
2. Water scarcity in Egypt
The total population has been tripled during the last fifty years. It raised from about 27.07 million in 1960 to 89.60 million in 2014 according to the World Bank. The average annual growth rate is 2.15 percent over the period (2004-2014). The water demand in Egypt grow due to the rapid population growth, the improvement…
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