Forensic Science, Crime, And Terrorism

885 Words Mar 17th, 2015 4 Pages
Criminalistics: Forensic Science, Crime, and Terrorism is a wide-ranging book written by James E. Girard (2011). This book depicts much information about Forensic Science. However, the chapters of this book are designed to specify accurate information in favor of Forensic Science and it’s different aspects. The chapter 6, I have chosen can be supportive to my research question. ‘How does classification system of fingerprint identification work?’

James E. Girard, the chief author of the book, has a lot experience in Chemistry and Forensic Science. He is chairperson of chemistry department at American University, Washington, DC. In addition, he has done PhD in the field of Chemistry, and he has been working in this field for past 20 years.
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Henry classification system of fingerprint
B. Automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS)

Girard (2011, p.134) states that fingerprint would be really valuable evidence for investigators because it can be helpful to approach the crime scene, which perpetrator did. Human being have some similarity in body parts but everyone across the world have their individual fingerprint that will not change over a lifetime period. And one unique thing is that ‘ the probabilities of two fingerprints being the same are 1 in 64 billion’.

Girard (2011, p. 139) describes that delta is very essential thing for classification of fingerprints and it is a particular place where two lines differ and make a triangle. Generally, Arch, Loop and whorl are three major types of fingerprint arrangements, which are based on existence of delta. Arches do not contain any deltas. However, loops have only one delta in it whereas another one whorl contains two or more deltas (shown on Fig.1). Furthermore, after this step examiner needs to identify some points (identification points) such as ridge ending, spur, bifurcation, dot, short ridge and crossover. There is not same number of identification points at every area of print (Girard, 2011, p.140).

Figure 1: Different patterns of fingerprint (Girard, 2011, p.139)
Once fingerprints have been collected and detailed, we have to classify it. There
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