Formative Assessment: The Definition Of Formive And Formative Assessment

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Formative assessment can be broadly defined as a form of assessment that focuses on the process of learning for improvement of students’ performance. However, until recently, the definition of formative assessment is still vague and there is no consensus as to what the term ‘formative assessment’ means. Very often, formative assessment may be understood to have similar idea to diagnostics assessment. However, some authors consider these two assessments as two separate practices (Nitko and Brookharts, 2011) with different purposes. While diagnostic assessment is designed before instruction and merely for the sake of planning instruction, formative assessment seeks understanding of the status of the learning with the purpose of identifying next…show more content…
Black and Wiliam (1998) highlighted the power of assessment to provide feedback, the importance of social context of learning, and some issues related to distinction between the formative and summative purpose of assessment. They also found the beneficial effects of formative assessment toward students learning have been well documented in the literature. However, Hattie and Jaeger (1998) criticize Black and Wiliam’s review because their position strongly supported the importance of assessment and feedback for teaching while neglecting learning. Hattie (2005) suggests assessment is about teaching as much as it is about learning. For formative assessment to deliver its promise, feedback must relate to how students learn. According to Hattie, a comprehensive theory of formative assessment must include a theory of learning because it is not necessarily the learner who has a problem; it may the teacher or teaching that needs remediation. Whereas, Popham (2008) defines formative assessment as a planned process during which the teacher or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust ongoing learning and instruction. Further, Hattie and Jaeger (1998) proposed five postulates of formative

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