Foundation of Molecular Biology

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1. Write an essay on protein structure and synthesis Protein synthesis is a cellular process leading to the production of proteins. This term is also synonymous to protein translation. It begins with a sequential process of transcription of DNA into mRNA, which is then used as input for translation after exon-intron splicing. The addition of successive tRNA molecules based on the code of mRNA matched up by base-pairing through their anti-codons in the ribosomes creates the nascent protein. After the protein chain has been synthesized, post-translation modification occurs, e.g. phosphorylation, motifs added to the protein. This may happen at various levels: secondary (alpha-helix, beta-sheets, turn, random coiling), tertiary and…show more content…
It happens in stages. First, a signalling molecule activates a receptor on the membrane. Second, a second messenger that will perpetuate the signal into the cell will bne activated to elicit a physiological response. Examples of such process involve cAMP, calcium signaling, and kinases. 4. Write an essay on the uses of polymerase chain reaction in molecular biology The polymerase chain reaction (or PCR) is a molecular technique for the amplifyication of a single or a few copies of DNA strands across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to even millions of copies of a particular DNA strand with the specific primers and a thermo-resistant polymerase enzyme. This powerful technique is being applied in medicine, eg, detection of gene mutation in cancers and tailoring of therapies; infectious diseases,eg detection of pathogens and infections; agriculture, analysis of cultuvars; and forensics, eg identification of criminal from sperm during rape cases. The polymerase chain reaction in molecular biology also allows scientist and medical professionals to replicate copies of specific DNA sequences in millions in a matter of few hours. In plain language, this allows researchers to photocopy or Xerox specific DNA sequences in a short period of time. They to replicating or duplicating specific DNA sequences however is a familiarity of a part of the sequence of the DNA molecules. This primers can be later synthesized to

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