The origins of Attachment theory can be traced to the influential work of John Bowlby (1958). Bowlby’s work as a psychiatrist in a Child Guidance Clinic in London caused him to consider the significance of the child’s relationship with their mother in terms of their cognitive, emotional and social development. Specifically, it contributed to enthralling his interests surrounding the link between early infant separations with the mother and later maladjustment, leading Bowlby to formulate the Theory of Attachment. Bowlby argues that this attachment between the mother and child is different in a qualitative form from any other form attachment. This theory, although seminal, holds many criticisms from others, stating that children learn more from their peers rather than from their parents (Harris, 1998). A separate criticism is that of Field’s (1996), who evaluates the many limitations of the Attachment Theory.
John Bowlby’s work in attachment has been the foundation when determining the attcahments and bonds that a child and parent may experience (Webb, 2011). According to Bowlby, “attachment” is referring to a lasting, mutual bond of affection that is dependent on an individual or more than one person (Webb, 2011). Establishing a secure attachment during infancy and early childhood is an important task of a parent or a caregiver. Not all parents or caregivers can provide their child with a secure attachment at this important in life due to various reasons. Since parents are the main providers in their child’s development of attachment, their lives and history has a great influence on their children’s lives.
John Bowlby, the backbone of attachment theories will be discussed throughout this essay to explain and evaluate the key theories of attachment. Health and well-being which is made up of four factors ‘physical, intellectual, emotional and social ' (Jones, 2016), will also be discussed within the essay. The definition of attachment is ‘an act of attaching or the state of being attached. ' (Dictionary, 1400) This will be showed in the assignment, using theorists to analyse the meaning. Sharing the strengths and weaknesses in some theorists will help conclude this assignment.
Ainsworths ‘strange situation’ was developed as a tool to measure types of attachment in infants. The experiment was carried out in a purpose build playroom and children were observed with cameras. It consisted of several situations, standardised for all those who took part. Each condition involved variation of the presence of the mother and/or a stranger, over 3 minute intervals. During these different conditions, the child’s behaviour was monitored, assessing their exploratory behaviour, stranger anxiety, separation protest and reunion behaviour. From her study, Ainsworth identified three types of attachment, these were: secure, insecure- avoidant and insecure-resistant, she
In the part of the essay I will describe and evaluate Bowlbys theory of Attachment and the learning theory of Attachment. I will show strengths and weaknesses in both theories. I will use a collection of source literature to back up and correlate this information.
In 1958, the Attachment theory came into existence. It was developed by John Bowlby on the notion that the quality of the parent -child relationship was essential for development and mental health (Howe, 2011, pg, 7). This thinking was in the context of distress shown by children when separated from their parents or when in unfamiliar surroundings. While having credit for the emergence of the attachment theory, Bowlby subsequently carried out a lot of research work with Mary Ainsworth concluding that children view their attachment figures as both a ?safe haven? to return to for comfort and protection and also a ?secure base? from which to explore their environment. The birth of children gives rise to the need to feel loved and wanted by caregivers, (Maclean and Harrison,2015 pg, 103), the absence of which might result in a range of behaviors to either
The theory of attachment was originally developed by child psychiatrist John Bowlby around 1948 (Bretherton, 1992). Attachment theory is when a child attaches/bonds themselves to a parental figure, somebody who cares for the child. Bowlby believed that the impact on a child’s life is greatest when the child and caregiver form an attachment when the child is very young in age (infant). Bowlby stated that if the attachment between the child and caregiver was not secure, that the child could then start to develop delinquent behavior (Schmalleger, 2014). Bowlby stated within his attachment theory that children who were abandoned at an early age, who really had only one parent in their life (other parent could have for instance been in prison), or children that were abused (physically, mentally, emotionally, sexually), were going to
Attachment theory is the concept of the development, of a psychological and emotional bond, that creates a secure or insecure attachment to a caregiver. Attachment bonds are very important, in regards to personal development. Formulated by John Bowlby in the sixties, he discovered that a child’s development depends significantly, on the strong attachment they form with a caregiver. Functions of Bowlby’s attachment
This foundation theory developed by John Bowlby, focuses on the form, quality, and strength of human attachments made in early life and their effect on development and pro-social behaviors (Tuner, 2011, p. 30). Bowlby’s attachment theory diverged from Freudian theory in many important ways, none more so than his emphasis on the importance of actual experience to human development. In Bowlby’s view, the quality of interactions between infant and caregiver(s), beginning at birth, motivated specifically by the child’s needs for safety and protection, are central to lifespan development (Turner, 2011, p. 31). Bowlby’s main interest was the formation, beginning in infancy, of the behaviors that collectively compose the attachment behavioral system.
B1/A2/A*1-John Bowlby’s attachment theory is a positive aspect to this transition as the child are likely to gain secure attachments with their key worker which enables them to work closely with each other, this then allows the child to be more comfortable with any support they receive throughout the process, however the child may become too attached to their key worker and may face issues later when the times comes for them to separate therefore it is important for children to spend time with other members of staff. Children can be attached to other practitioners other than their key worker so it is important for both to communicate to ensure that the key worker knows everything about the child and keep on track with any paperwork they have to complete about the child and keep track of the child’s progress and development. I think that Bowlby attachment theory is important within this transition as the child going into care needs a secure attachment to someone as the attachment to their parents will be disrupted and the child needs someone for support especially a child of this age. The child can make an attachment to their foster carer however this also may be difficult if the child is in temporary foster care and are removed from care, this may cause the child distress as all the attachments they have made are being disrupted. There are many criticism of Bowlby’s theory, one of these are that Bowlby believed that ‘Bowlby suggested that a child would initially form only
Attachment is the beginning of development for a healthy family system. Attachment or bonds are started very young they start with the parent and the child then it expands outward overdevelopment. There are four types of attachment styles avoidant, secure, ambivalent, and disorganized-disoriented. An attachment is a special bond and is usually positive between the child and usually the parents (Feldman, 2014, p.182). Out of the four attachments, secure attachment plays the most important in a healthy development of a child. Secure attachment is when a child and the caregiver such as the mother gives a secure foundation which the child feels like he/ she can explore the world around
Attachment styles in adults can also be assessed using a questionnaire developed by Shaver and colleagues. All of these methods can be used to classify people into the classic attachment styles described following.
British psychotherapist, John Bowlby (1907-1990) was recognized as the father of the attachment theory and advanced a multidisciplinary stance, which included psychoanalysis with ethnology and cognitive development. Bowlby (1969) wanted to understand more about the level of distress that occurred in infants when they were separated from their parents and how that experience impacted on their developmental wellbeing.
Many psychologists have come and gone, and many different theoretical orientations have been developed. With each orientation has come a new perspective on development, behaviour and mental processes. Some are similar, yet others could not be more contradictory. Attachment is one such theoretical orientation, developed by John Bowlby out of his dissatisfaction with other existing theories. Although Bowlby rejected psychoanalytical explanations for early infant bonds, the theory of attachment was influenced in part by the principles of psychoanalysis; in particular the observations by Ana Freud and Dorothy Burlingham of young children separated from