Four Visions of Society (Summary)

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Four Visions of Society The concept of society refers to people who interact in a defined territory and share culture. The four visions of society addresses the forces that shape human life. GERHARD AND JEAN LENSKI: SOCIETY AND TECHNOLOGY The first vision, Gerhard and Jean Lenski focus their research on sociocultural evolution, or the changes that occur as a society gains new technology. There were five types of societies, namely: (1) Hunting and Gathering Societies, (2) Horticultural and Pastoral Societies, (3) Agrarian Societies, (4) Industrial Societies, and (5) Postindustrial Societies. Hunting and Gathering refers to the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation. These type of societies are family centered,…show more content…
Revolution. Marx claimed that revolution is the key to the birth of industrial capitalism lay in the protestant reformation. MAX WEBER: THE RATIONALIZATION OF SOCIETY This is about Max Weber's illustration of the significance of ideas that shape society. Two World Views: Tradition and Rationality. There are two types of societies, the first is characterized by traditions, or values and beliefs passed from generation to generation. The other is characterized by rationality, or the way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter of fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task. Is Capitalism Rational? There are different views on this question. For Marx, industrial capitalism was the antithesis of rationality. For Weber, it was its essence. Weber's Great Thesis: Protestantism and Capitalism. This idea is about the force behind the unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the development of capitalism. Rational Social Organization seek to meet the demands of a growing, complex, society. It involves seven traits: distinctive social institutions, large-scale organizations, specialized tasks, personal discipline, and awareness of time, technical competence, and impersonality. These traits are expressed in bureaucracy and capitalism. EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIETY AND FUNCTION This is about the analysis of the patterns of social solidarity. Structure: Society Beyond Ourselves.
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