In psychology, there are several different approaches to general psychology. Each psychological perspective focuses on different aspects than the last. These aspects can range from culture, childhood, evolution, and even genetics. All these different factors are studied in the 7 perspectives in order to better understand the human psyche. Without knowing more about how we think and why we are the way we are how are we ever going to move forward in making ourselves better? One method isn 't better than the other but may be more appropriate or easier to use depending on what is being researched. Each perspective was born from the
In Communications Between Cultures individualism and collectivism are described by researchers as “self-orientation versus collective orientation as one of the basic pattern variables that determine human action.” These differences can be found in family life, school, and workplace
One reason why Americans shouldn’t be required to vote is because voting without background information might lead to wrong decisions. Evidence supporting this reason is, in document G (New York Times) (Randy Cohen) states that people that are uninformed, will end up voting for something that doesn’t endorse their interests. This evidence helps explain
The authors lay out their John Q. Public model in the Second Chapter. The first pragmatic chapters stipulate evidence using response time-based measures that people constantly engage in stimulated cognition about political figures, issues, and groups (Chapter 3). In Chapter 4, Lodge and Taber argue that these processes influence implicit in and out group identifications. Furthermore, they demonstrate that subliminal negative or positive emotional stimuli can influence a political candidate’s evaluation and conscious reflection on the real political issues (Chapter 5). Lodge and Taber argue that their findings conquer with their proposed “affective contagion” model that is instrumental to the attitude formation and updating process. The authors then provide evidence that individuals’ priorities determine how they select and process information. The conventional studies presented in the Sixth Chapter employ unequivocal measures and thought listing tasks. The chapter finds steady patterns of motivated reasoning among people and sophisticates with strong initial attitudes. The patterns include confirmation bias, disconfirmation bias, and selective exposure; these are further motivated in the Seventh Chapter of the book. Lodge and Taber’s Final Chapter offer an ambitious attempt to formalize and test a computational model based on their JQP model. In their conclusion, the
After reading the article, “The dumbing down of voters,” by Rick Shenkman, I was first shocked by his claim that public has an immense lack of knowledge concerning politics. But the more I thought about the claim the more I realised the truth about the statement. Many people in the United States are oblivious to what the government is doing and who is a part of the government. The lack of knowledge from the public is also unsettling because if the public doesn’t know basic knowledge like what are the three branches of government, then the country could take a turn for the worst. Voters are also giving out their votes to presidential candidates that local newspapers focus on because they either are too lazy or ignorant to think for themselves
In James N. Druckman’s Priming the Vote, he asserts that nowadays numerous academics presume that voters’ choices are essentially molded by campaigns. For decades, traditional wisdom recommended that campaigns had little to no influence on voters. Druckman insists that numerous academics have noted a relationship between campaign differences and overall distinctions in voting conduct. Some academics propose investigational proof that certain rhetoric can influence a voter’s choice.
The article “Fixing the Communication Failure” by Dan Kahan, explains cultural cognition, and its role in effecting the discussion of issues. Cultural cognition refers to the individuals to conform an idea and argument based on their culture and their surrounding environment. Therefore, people views new scientific data in a biased way because of their concluded mine. Kahan defines people point of views into four groups, individualism, hierarchism, egalitarianism, and communitarianism. People from these four groups has their ideas and values, which create a polarize situation between the public. Kahan explains that one way to open people’s mind is to presented information that maintain their culture’s values and there is someone in their culture
Throughout American history, political campaigns were a great part of the nation. These campaigns are a successful tool in benefitting the United States by ensuring the best solution; therefore, eliminating stress for the political party and the people of the U.S. In 1948, article writers Lazarsfeld PF, Berelson B, and Gaudet H of The People’s choice: how the voter makes up his mind in presidential campaign, in the Columbia University Press, records about an experiment, in 1948 that impacted the voting behavior of Democrats and Republicans. With further research, they found that many voters were influenced by commentary and made changes to their votes. With these vote alterations, it becomes clear that the persuasion of socioeconomics causes
Rational ignorance is exercised when the cost of obtaining education on political matters and exercising the resulting preferences is greater than the potential benefits the improved understanding could yield. This rational ignorance is caused by several factors, including the difficulty in becoming educated, the opportunity cost associated with the time spent, the small impact each voter has on the government’s decision making, and the insignificance of most policies in day-to-day life. Irrational ignorance occurs when individuals form beliefs that are illogical but serve the individual’s personal preferences, but then fail to exercise reason when approaching their own and others opinions. This irrationality is driven by elements including self interested bias, the concept that beliefs act as an identity and group creator, coherence bias, selective attention, biased gathering and judging of evidence, and a reliance on unsound evidence to confirm existing beliefs.
Gail B. Peterson (2004) describes the historical process that lead Skinner to discovered shaping. At the time of the discovery, Skinner was conducting experiments on the project pigeon during WW ll. In the year 1943 Skinner and his graduate students were working on a “war-time project sponsored by General Mills, INC.” (Peterson 2004) Skinner spending a lot of time in his laboratory; Skinner and his colleagues decided to teach pigeons to bowl. The pigeon was to send a wooden ball down a miniature alley toward a set of toy pins by swiping the ball with a sharp sideward movement of the beak. (Peterson 2004) Skinner reinforcing the response the pigeons show remarkable results. These results seem to amazed Skinner because Skinner had shaped a behavior
Direct democracy is at its best when it stimulates more active participation in the democratic process among citizens. Smith and Tolbert (2004) argued that although they understand the potential danger of direct democracy by ballot initiative, initiative processes could be very positive for democratic practices. Members of the public are provided with more education on the issues and voter turnout is higher when such initiatives are on the ballot. In addition, Bowler and Donovan (2000) found that voters are more capable than political scientists often give them credit for, that is, they are more capable of becoming informed about the issues and to cast a thoughtful vote. They argue that expensive initiative campaigns actually promote voter engagement, especially at the partisan level; they also assert that voters use the ballot information guides provided by states, and that such a simple resource usually provides what voters need in order to come to an informed decision. Similarly, Donovan, Bowler, and McCuan's (2001) research showed that voters actually get their information from official ballot summaries and media coverage of the ballot initiatives rather than campaign advertisements and messages. Of course, such confidence in official ballot summaries and the media may be misplaced; ballot summaries are notoriously confusing and misleading and the media rarely provide the public with substantive information about ballot issues (Sabato et al., 2001b; Moses
* B. .F Skinner (1904-1990) argued that these concepts are not needed to explain behavior. One can explain behavior, he claimed, by analyzing the conditions that are present before a behavior occurs and then analyzing the consequences that follow the behavior. (operant conditioning: reinforcement)
Why do Americans have limited amount of political knowledge? It’s because the public lacks interest in politics. They rely on group/party loyalty, rather than reasoning. Their responses change randomly from survey to survey. Recent research shows that the public knows some basic things. For example, they know the location of the capital and the length of president’s term, but they lack knowledge about other basic things. About 50% know there are 2 senators for each state, and only 66% know which party controls the House. They show high instability of their preferences, so explosion of information sources has not helped. The authors Greenburg and Page believe that political “trivia” may not be a good measure of adequate knowledge. They also mentioned that the reason for the instability of preference is because people change their minds and reflect on multidimensional ideology. It’s understandable that American citizens have lost trust in the government as well as interest, but the group of people that show the least amount of interest in politics and voting are the young generation.