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6657 WordsMar 23, 201127 Pages
Computer [pic] A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and automatically manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format. The first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). Originally, they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1] Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2]Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and can be powered by a small battery. Personal computers in their various forms are iconsof the Information Age and are what most people think of as…show more content…
The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps, but defining one point along this road as "the first digital electronic computer" is difficult. Notable achievements are as under:- ▪ Konrad Zuse's electromechanical "Z machines". The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic, including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete, therefore being the world's first operational computer.[17] ▪ The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (commenced in 1937, completed in 1941) which used vacuum tube based computation, binary numbers, and regenerative capacitor memory. The use of regenerative memory allowed it to be much more compact than its peers (being approximately the size of a large desk or workbench), since intermediate results could be stored and then fed back into the same set of computation elements. ▪ The secret British Colossus computers (1943),[18] which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically reprogrammable. It was used for breaking German wartime codes. ▪ The Harvard Mark I (1944), a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.[19] ▪ The U.S. Army's Ballistic

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