Fruit Tree Diversity And Fruit Consumption

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Chapter 4:
Fruit tree diversity and fruit consumption in the context of deforestation in Cameroon
1. INTRODUCTION
The world has been confronted with serious difficulties in curbing the rate of undernourishment, especially in sub-Sahara Africa (Vicenti et al., 2013; Arnold et al., 2011; Goenster et al., 2011). In developing countries, the livelihood and food security of smallholder land users are often at risk from unpredictable harvests, land degradation and climate change (Paumgarten and Shackleton, 2011; Mertens et al., 2000; Ndoye and Kaimowitz, 2000; Sunderlin et al., 2000). Of about one billion hungry people globally, 98% live in developing countries. Seventy percent of chronically hungry people are smallholder farmers, 43% of total farmers worldwide are women and 38% of youths in Africa are working in agriculture (Conway and Wilson, 2012; FAO, 2011). For instance, in forest areas of Cameroon, stunting and chronic malnutrition was experienced by 30.3% of children between 24-47 months in the South region and 27.8% in the Centre region (Socpa et al., 2008). Since the varieties of wildfruits are numerous (Matig et al., 2006; van Wyk, 2005) and vary from one season and climatic region to another, fruits and wild foods can constitute important sources of food during crop scarcity (Vicenti et al., 2013; Termote et al., 2012; Ingram and Shure 2010; Nesbit et al., 2010; Shackleton and Shackleton, 2004). Thus, fruits can serve as safety nets in the diet of households when
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