Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder. It occurs when cartilage begins to break down or be worn away and the bone rubs together. As a result bony spurs and inflammation of the joint(s) occurs. Surrounding ligaments and muscles may also weaken or stiffen. Major risk factors are: genetics, excess weight, joint injuries, jobs that involve more than an hour of joint stressing activities like kneeling, and sports that involve direct impact on the joints, twisting, or throwing. Bleeding disorders, disorders that blood supply near joints, and other types of arthritis can cause osteoarthritis. Symptoms typically begin while one is middle aged and almost everyone shows some symptoms of OA by age 70. This is important to note because OA is seemingly inevitable for everybody. OA is not curable and typically gets worse with time, but the symptoms can be managed. Strength in weight bearing joints, the hip, the knee, and the ankle, is particularly important for prevention. Also important are not overusing joints and maintaining a normal body weight.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disorder; knee is the joint that most frequently affected.1 During 1988 to 1994, among US adults, the prevalence of knee OA was 37.4%, and the prevalence was greater among women than men (42.1% vs 31.2%).2 Knee OA will impair lower extremity function, and influencing the quality of life. The most common complaints from the patients with knee OA are the pain, daily functional decline, joint deformity, and gait deviation3,4. Symptomatic OA knee patients have shown that significantly less knee angular velocity and knee range of motion during gait. The normal joint load line can be altered with possible varus angulation of the knee, eventually affecting
Amongst young people there is a tendency to play around without thinking of their bodies and how much effort they are putting into them. It’s this reckleness what causes several physical injuries when playing games or practicing sports, it even gets to the point where it can makes changes on their still growing bodies. While the bones, muscles, tendons and others are changing and there is this additional stress on them, the body is trying to adapt to this, making changes.
1882).According to Lewis et al., researchers have not identify a single cause of OA, however, there are few factors that contribute to the development (p. 1881). Some factors are estrogen reduction to menopause women, genetic factors, obesity, overuse of knees by persistent exercise, and aging. In my patient’s case, aging and obesity led her to have OA. Her BMI is 34.1 which fall into category of obesity (see
1. How do bones, cartilage, muscles and joints work together to enable movement and locomotion for the human body? (make sure to mention how they all work together, give specific examples)
The pain in the muscles and joint becomes so acute that one is unable to do any meaningful physical activity. As the muscle joint pain becomes more and more intense, the affected tissues seem to get more tender. In some few cases of SLE, the patient might not experience a lot of pain. In this case, the condition becomes very difficult to diagnose. It might not be until the individual has started losing physical strength before the problem is diagnosed by a specialist in arthritic conditions.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) usually begins in adolescence or young adulthood and is seen in as many as 1 in 200 children and adolescents. OCD is characterized by recurrent intense obsessions and/or compulsions that cause severe discomfort and interfere with day-to-day functioning. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are unwanted and cause marked anxiety or distress. Frequently,
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric condition characterized by obsession, compulsion, or both. The condition typically affects individuals during childhood or adolescence and often continues until adulthood. Obsessions are characterized by intrusive thought or urges that lead to anxiety and distress. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors that the person feels compelled to accomplish according to set rules.
Osteoarthritis indicates joint disorders, characterized by symptoms of pain and stiffness. It includes metabolic processes of destruction and reparation. Osteoarthritis is classified as primary (idiopathic) or secondary, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. primary OA of the knee is a process of degeneration of the articular surface occurs without an obvious underlying abnormality. The manifestations of OA arise from high stresses on the normal joints or normal stresses on weakened joints, increasing in severity and frequency with age. The most commonly affected joints with osteoarthritis are large, weight-bearing joints, such as the knee and hip, and also smaller joints in the hands, feet. Unfortunately, treating articular
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease where the cartilage of a joint breaks down, causing pain and swelling, along with problems in moving the joint. The disease mostly occurs in the hips, lower back, knees, small joints of the fingers and the neck, however it can occur at any joint. The cartilage of these joints allows a smooth surface between gliding bones and provides cushioning. Over time as osteoarthritis becomes worse, the bones can break down and develop growths called spurs. When osteoarthritis is at its worst, the cartilage wears away and the bones rub against each other, which causes more severe pain and damage to the joint.
OA is a musculoskeletal disease that causes chronic joint pain and reduced physical functioning (Laba, brien, Fransen, & jan, 2013). Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-inflammatory disorder of synovial joints that results in loss of hyaline cartilage and remodeling of surrounding bone. OA is the single most common joint disease, with an estimated prevalence of 60% in men and 70% in women later in life after the age of 65 years, affecting an estimated 40 million people in the United States (Goodman & Fuller, 2009). Women are more commonly affected after the age of 55, almost everyone has some symptoms by the age of 70 (Tan, Zahara, Colburn & Hawkins, 2013, p.78). Osteoarthritis can be described radiological, clinical, or subjective.
The developmental sequence of OCD begins when articular cartilage detaches from the subchondral bone.4 The separation may spontaneously heal, or it may progress to a complete separation from the underlying bone.4 Once the separation is complete, a piece may break free and form a loose body within the joint.4
A theory that has been created is the serotonin theory, which is that people with OCD have too little serotonin (Thomsen). “Serotonin ensures that nerve impulses are transmitted (Thomsen 95).” A model was created to help understand OCD in children and adults, and this model shows that there are disturbances in the restriction and transmission of certain nerve impulses deep in the brain (Thomsen). Obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions can run free because they have nothing to restrain them (Thomsen).