Art has been a recurring part of history from the very beginning. As society changes so does the style of art. Each new style is known as a movement and one of the most prominent, long-lasting movements in recent centuries is known as Modernism. Modernism is characterized by its deviation from tradition. People who are a part of this movement found enjoyment in finding new mediums to use, creating art that revolves around feelings and emotions rather than reality. Abstract idealisms of modernism cause its viewers to need to think more critically about the art before them. In past movements, the meaning of the work was obvious as it was created to mimic reality.
The artwork “Unique Forms of Continuity in Space” in 1913 (cast 1931), which is made in Bronze. This artwork belongs to Futurism. Futurism is a reaction against traditional Italian culture, celebrated modern life vitality and passion, and interested in speed and technology, interested in political activism and believed that WWI would cleanse Europe of its reliance on the past. Also, fascist.
The late 19th and early 20th centuries brought forth a modern approach to science, intellectual affairs, and the arts. Before 1914, these ideas were a result of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment periods. During this time period there were a series of new inventions, which included electric lights, phonographs, cinema, and automobiles. One of these developments that “opened the way to a modern consciousness” was with developments in science. Science was a field that dealt with cold hard facts and reason, which is different from the religious beliefs that many individuals were used to seeing. Many believed that the Scientific laws of the time would give rise to an understanding of the physical world, however the “new” physics altered
The world of medicine, health and science, was on a fast track forward. Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1921. An immunization for the dreaded Diphtheria was developed in 1923. Vitamins and a discovered interest in a healthier America was on the horizon.
1. Describe some of the events and scientific discoveries that shook the late nineteenth century’s confidence in the idea of progress. What effect did these events have on music, literature, and the arts? Despite the incredible advancements from the scientific world in the late nineteenth century, the rapidly developing industry
￼CULTURAL & SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE The arts & crafts movement is not important for its designs, but for the ideology it created. This ideology would inspire future movements, artists and designers, such as the Bauhaus, Jugendstil workshops and the Modern Movement. It was one of the most powerful, successful and influential movements in the design history of the modern era.
Philosophy and science gained forefront and a new belief system took hold. This new belief
At first glance, Giovanni Paolo Pannini’s Picture Gallery with Views of Modern Rome (1757) reveals very little past the outsider-looking-in perspective we are given from Pannini’s perspective. In the center is the Duc de Choiseul surrounded by detailed views of Roman architecture including buildings, fountains, and monuments and several infamous sculptures from the 17th and 18th centuries. While looking at the painting, it is hard to pinpoint one focal point within the composition when the walls of the gallery are filled with paintings from the floor to the ceiling. The focus becomes about the space Pannini has created and it does not focus on one specific object or figure. Each view of Rome seen in the imagined gallery adds to the illusion of Rome as an ideal city and to the idea of its beauty. By showing a space that reflects this beauty through the numerous paintings, sculptures, and architecture Pannini’s painting transforms into an allegory. Even though this painting was commissioned to commemorate Rome, he is able to portray the city and its architecture through a well respected and scholarly environment uncharacteristic of any known space or time. These characteristics cause the which allows it by creating a fictitious These allegorical characteristics do not become known unless you take a closer look at Picture Gallery with Views of Modern Rome (1757).
New discoveries in science significantly changed everyone’s worldview in the second half of the nineteenth century. In the beginning, everyone’s perspective was very much based off of religious beliefs. Humans were mad in God’s image, God created everything just the way it is, and God is in charge. However, the new scientific views and discoveries changed that in the late nineteenth century. Possibly the most controversial and influential scientific theory that greatly impacted people’s worldview would be Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and Survival of the Fittest. Darwin’s ideas influenced everyone to have a new way of thinking, as well as a new perspective on human life. This also influence some to broaden their horizons in a way, and
(transition) Marinetti even states in the “Manifesto of Futurism” that, “Beauty exists only in the struggle. There is no masterpiece that has not an aggressive character.” This suits Marinetti’s own piece because of the raw, violent, and sexual imagery used to describe the machinery in the future. For example, the reader is confronted with “rogue locomotives” and “hungry, roaring automobiles”. Furthermore, Marinetti says that the Futurists “want to glorify war because it is the
Inventions which rapidly changed various aspects of human culture were developed in the industrial era, and it was this course that humanity took which would initiate the paradigm shift from a search for answers within religion to science.
Critical Commentary “Crocicchio” by Ardengo Soffici is a poem written in the era of the historic avant-garde in which Italy was facing a technological revolution; railways, cars and trams were all being transformed and as such the country saw a rise in the Italian Futurist movement. This movement praised all things modern by exploring new forms and technologies, treating them as a spectacle to be revered. The influence of these futuristic ideologies is clear in Crocicchio as Soffici paints a series of pictures of city life characterised by the chaos and activity which he experiences in his passing.
Dada, known for it’s chaotic nature, indirect protesting and iconoclasm also evolved into a political movement. Rejection of artistic mastery, defying authority, overprinting, and purposeful mistakes, where all a part of what Tristain Tzara and his contemporaries were trying to succeed. Cubism, Vorticism, Orphism, Purism, and Futurism also came about because of World War I. Heavily influenced by Cubism and it’s shattered glass appearance Futurism was the most politically mind of these five movements. Somewhat akin to Dada in it’s chaotic nature Futurist’s, however, were staunchly pro war and were looking for ways to bring Italy into the present times. Purism, on the other hand, took the collage look of synthetic Cubism and modern abstract style and made
The rioters’ faces are not fully represented; rather, they appear twisted and animal-like. In a similar vein, the only parts of the beaten figure recognizable as human are the bound feet. This combination of features in the main composition serves to emphasize the brutal savagery brought on by war, a goal similar to that of many other Disasters prints. The central subject matter in Uprising is also rioting peasants, but unlike in The Mob, the protagonists seem to have stern intention and an apparent guiding force. The former of these two qualities is visible thanks to Kollwitz’s realistic representation of the group’s dour facial expressions and the use of thick lines to represent forceful waving of objects in the air, while the latter is synthesized by the inclusion of the Liberty-esque figure and her relationship to the men below. The intention of this work, constructed through these elements, is to provoke feelings of solidarity and to act as a call to action of sorts. This pointed objective clearly shows Kollwitz’s political standing and heavily contrasts Goya’s preferred method of allowing significance and emotion to flow out of more unbiased depictions of events, in
The Special Theory of relativity is an acknowledged physical theory that revolutionized advancements in the relationship between space, and time. The theory is one of the most interesting discoveries that are still used today in science fiction movies such as Star Wars, and Star Trek through the use of black holes, and time travel due to it’s astonishing results, and it occurrence at speeds close to the speed light, which can be appealing to a wide range of audience. This was a harvest from six years of extremely handwork by Albert Einstein. Einstein used resources that were widely available to the public due to his economic constraints. It wasn’t until 1905, when Einstein finally had finished and published his discoveries, and gatherings