1. What are the relationships among Earth's mantle, crust, asthenosphere, and lithosphere?
The lithosphere is basically the strong outer shell of earth. It is roughly 100km thick depending on its age, and is broken into plates, known as the tectonic plates. Within the lithosphere is the crust as a portion of the upper mantle.
The crust is the outer most portion of the earth and takes up less than 1% than the total volume of the earth. It is commonly compared to the skin of an apple, whereas the apple represents the earth. The temperature of the crust varies from the air on top, to upward of 1600 at the deepest parts. The tectonic plates are part of the crust of the earth, moving and shifting on the softer mantle or…show more content…
Thanks to static electricity ice, dirt, rocks and other grains of solid material slowly began to gather together forming bigger pieces, those pieces formed bigger pieces, having a “snowball” effect. They eventually became big enough to have their own gravitational field which then collected more material, eventually creating a planet. More material meant more mass, which gave the forming planet even more gravity. With tons and tons of material, and gravity pushing it together, intense pressure causes intense heat. This combination of pressure and heat gives the earth its molten interior.
The Jovian (gas) planets formed by a similar process but with less solid materials and with much more gas that was blown further out by the solar winds. Jupiter and the rest of the gas giant probably contain a solid core, of rock and other metals. Although none of the gas planets have a solid surface like we do on earth, only a thicker and thicker atmosphere until reaching the core. It’s important to note, that because Jupiter is so large (317 times the mass of the earth, 1321 times bigger by volume), and has such large pressure on the interior, elements found as gases on earth could possibly be a solid or vice versa. For example, metallic hydrogen (which is a state where hydrogen behaves as an electrical conductor) is only still a theory since we are unable to create the pressures needed here on earth. Metallic hydrogen is known as the Holy Grail in high pressure physics.