GRT task 2 Essay

996 Words Aug 8th, 2015 4 Pages
Task 2
Melissa Robinson
March 21, 2015

A1. Threonine is an essential amino acid that is classified as slightly polar due to its hydroxyl group and the ability to easily donate a hydrogen atom. This as well makes it hydrophilic and often will saturate the outer region of a water soluble protein. They hydroxyl side chain can undergo glycosylation by adding saccharides and phosphorylation by adding phosphate through the actions of threonine kinase (New World Encyclopedia, 2015).

B. Protein Structure
C. Peptide bond through dehydration

D. Peptide bond broken through hydrolysis

E. Four forces that stabilize tertiary protein structure The tertiary structure is the last shape formation that a protein undergoes and is
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The chaperones have the main role of ensuring proper folding. When a chaperone protein becomes toxic, major changes in the conformation occur as the alpha helix becomes beta pleated sheets. The sheets now expose the hydrophobic amino acid and aggregation, or clumping together of sheets occurs (Borges, 2014). In bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the disease is caused by the misfolding of proteins that cause proteins and peptides to develop a fibrillary structure. The PrPc is a correctly folded prion and the misfolded form is called PrPSc. BSE occurs when the normal PrPc come into contact with the toxic PrPSc and the normal prion takes on the shape of the PrPSc. The normal chaperones are unable to convert the PrPSc back to the normal form. The PrPSc now takes on the role of chaperone and the conversion of PrPc prions continue over and over. PrPSc, now being hydrophobic avoids the water of the inner cell and begin to accumulate and form plaques along the neuronal cell membranes. The aggregation of the prions on the cell membrane eventually lead to cell death which produces the sponge-like appearance in the brain of cattle infected with BSE (Thompson, 2014).
F4. Recommendations in decreasing the risk of BSE BSE is a form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that is transmitted when cattle consume feed that contains other animal protein from infected animals such as scrapie in sheep (CDC,

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