Humans undergo several stages during their lifetime including growth, development, reproduction and senescence. Senescence is defined as the deteriorative biological changes that organisms experience as they age eventually leading to death. These changes include low metabolism, a weak immune system, memory loss, poor vision and loss of hearing. Senescence begins in humans during their post-reproductive years. However, gerontology research has shown that individuals who reproduce late have longer life spans compared to individuals who reproduce early. Nonetheless, it does not indicate that senescence is inevitable. All organisms experience senescence,
The greater longevity and improved health seen at older ages in many parts of the world represent one of the crowning achievements of the last century, but also present a significant
Willcox et al. investigate a group of elderly males that could potentially influence factors in healthy human ageing by studying potential longevity candidate genes linked to the insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) pathway. The Authors state that previous research indicates that the only human gene found to be widely associated with the effects of longevity and healthy ageing is the ApoE gene. The Authors performed a study on a group of genes that were chosen for their relation to ageing phenotypes sourced from previous model organisms. The
It is a known fact that all measures of physiological function decline in human aging. While genetics certainly play a role in the declining of physiological function with age, it can be argued that a fundamental part of aging can be reflected by chemical processes resulting in the appearance of harmful side products of the normal metabolism over time. When enzymes speed up reactions it is harder to slow them down. At the same time side reactions are constantly occurring and more and more unwanted side products are continuously being formed.
Cellular senescence has always previously thought to be an unavoidable and irreversible process wherein old cells stop dividing and undergo a series of chemical and physical changes. These bigger, flatter senescent cells do not die and accumulate in all parts of the body. Senescent cells were only associated with a body’s natural safeguard against cancer; Cells that are cancerous are often fast-tracked to senescence in hopes that it will stop dividing further. However, recent discoveries have shown that senescent cells actually pump out a variety of proteins that cause inflammation, a normally healthy immune response that damages healthy cells in the long run. Almost every discovered
In the new age, aging is an event that has confounded biologists for the past several decades. With new advances in medicine, people are living longer than ever before and as a result are experiencing a new phenomenon known as aging, where there is deterioration of physiological functions that are required for survival and fertility over time. Now that people can live past 50 years of age, they are likely to develop grey hair, muscle deterioration, memory loss and slowed sexual responsiveness. While most organisms go through the aging process, there is no single hypothesis that explains how or why aging and senescence, the physiological deterioration, happens. In most organisms, there is a trade-off between the energy allocated for early growth
The authors are thus led to conclude that “to date, no convincing evidence showing the administration of existing ‘anti-aging’ remedies can slow aging or increase longevity in humans is available.” And the SENS Research Foundation Web site admits: “No currently-available medical intervention or lifestyle choice has been shown to affect the basic human aging process.”"
4. Pre-osteoblasts are recruited by cytokines: transforming growth factor beta, insulin growth-like factors, fibroblast growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) (Hock et al, 2004). The actions of BMPs cause pre-osteoblasts to differentiate into osteoblasts (Monolagas, 2000). Osteoblasts then secrete bone matrix proteins: type-I collagen, osteocalcin, proteoglycans, growth factors and glycoproteins into the resorption pits (Nair et al, 1996). Approximately 50% of osteoblasts then undergo apoptosis and the remaining become embedded osteocytes or bone lining cells.
While anti-aging is a field of interest, there are some challenges that come about since aging is a complicated process with no definitive answer. Due to factors
Human beings are known to deteriorate naturally with age in a process called aging, which is a psychological change in the human body leading to senescence. When human beings age, the biological functions of their bodies, resistance to diseases, and their ability to adapt to stress declines (Aldwin & Gilmer, 2013). The causes of aging have remained uncertain for a long time, and the process of aging has remained a biological puzzle. Nevertheless, scientific researchers that have set their sights on explaining the causes of aging have attributed the primary causes of aging to both programmed factors and damage-related factors.
In today's world, much gets written about combating the natural aging process. While most of the information is valid in many cases, let us examine below five, time-tested and proven methods that anyone can incorporate into their daily routine to fight advancing age. In doing so, many potential illnesses or diseases can be avoided.
Aging is the process of becoming older, as we age, multiple mutations occur that concern all the processes of aging well as it compromising a number of different genes. There are many theories of biological aging, such as the Cellular Aging Theory, Immunological Theory, and the Wear and Tear Theory. The Cellular Aging theory describes the process of aging in which cells slow their number of replication, thus giving each species a “biological clock that determines its maximum life span” and how quickly one 's health will deteriorate(Hooyman, 42). After a certain number of years, each cell which follows an apparent biological clock starts to replicate itself less, thus the specific individual or species slowly deteriorates. This theory gives
Cell death is when a biological cell stops carrying out is function. Cell death can be due to the natural process of replacing old cells with new ones, or may result from factors such as disease, localized injury, or even death of the whole organism.
Given the vital role of caspase activation in apoptotic cell death, blocking their function is a useful approach to find out whether apoptosis has a causal effect in triggering compensatory proliferation. In various species tissue regeneration was impaired if cell death was blocked with pan-caspase or effector caspase inhibitors (Fan and Bergmann 2008; Li et al. 2010; Ryoo and Bergmann 2012; Tseng et al. 2007). This approach has also been shown to ameliorate loss of neuronal cells and function after traumatic brain injury and retinal detachment (Hisatomi et al. 2001; Zacks et al. 2003). Following this approach we found that the pan-caspase inhibitor reduced the number of cleaved CASP3+ cells in cultured retina explants, but not the overall