There are at least three separate justification-type questions surrounding the condemnation of Galileo. First, was the Roman Catholic Church justified in accepting Ptolemy over Copernicus? Second, was it justified in issuing the injunction against Galileo in 1616? And third, based on the injunction, was it justified in condemning him in 1633? There may be further ethical and methodological questions surrounding the Church’s actions in Galileo affair, but these will be extrinsic, 21st century questions that a good Roman Catholic of the time would have considered settled. It is these three that will help us understand things from a 17th century Catholic perspective. I will defend the position that while the evidence for Copernicanism was not
For most people of the modern age, a clear distinction exists between the truth as professed by religious belief, and the truth as professed by scientific observation. While there are many people who are able to hold scientific as well as religious views, they tend to hold one or the other as being supreme. Therefore, a religious person may ascribe themselves to certain scientific theories, but they will always fall back on their religious teachings when they seek the ultimate truth, and vice versa for a person with a strong trust in the sciences. For most of the early history of humans, religion and science mingled freely with one another, and at times even lent evidence to support each other as being true. However, this all changed
Galileo Galilei was a very influential and controversial astronomer, scientist, mathematician, teacher, and physicist. His life began in the sixteenth century and ended in the seventeenth, in which he penned several books that supported the Copernican theory of a heliocentric solar system. In the words of Drake S. (1957) “... the works of Galileo are well written, and throw light upon the origins of modern science…”(Pg. 2) Although Galileo was soon deemed a heretic by the Roman Catholic church, he continued diligently challenging Aristotelian thought and doctrine and expressing his support of the Copernican theory. As he continued to make discoveries that supported this theory, the church continued to label him as a heretic, and eventually
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, hearing that some had denounced his doctrine as anti-Scriptural, Galileo presented himself at Rome in December, 1615, and was courteously received. He was presently interrogated before the Inquisition, which after consultation declared the system he upheld to be scientifically false, and anti-Scriptural or heretical, and that he must renounce it. This he obediently did, promising to teach it no more. Then followed a decree of the Congregation of the Index dated 5
Over two centuries ago the Catholic Church tried Galileo, because he published his book in 1632 that supported the heliocentric ideas that originated from Copernicus. The church claimed that the heliocentric theory went against scripture. During this time the Catholic Church believed in the idea that the Earth was at the center of the universe. This was called the geocentric theory, which had been around for nearly 1500 years. Galileo was tried less than a year later in 1633. The trial was private, because the church feared the community would support him, because he was one of the most achieved astronomers of their time. The church’s committee unanimously voted that his book, the Two Chief World Systems violated his
However, it is the human's job to produce “the happiness of the good and the punishment of the evil” (Document 12). This, promotes the fact that our minds are stronger than we think. John Calvin supported astronomy (Document 2). Calvin supported this because of its connections to Moses and the book of Genesis. However, he also went against the Catholic Church and supported astronomy probably because he was Protestant and just wanted to support what the Catholic Church disagreed with. The Church didn’t want to let Galileo spread his ideas about the moon because they knew that it discredited many of their beliefs (Document 3). The church didn’t want Galileo to prove them wrong so that others would stop going to Church. The Pope made Galileo recant what he had said. The church did this to make sure that more people didn’t stop going to church which was their source of money. Walter Charleton, an English Doctor and natural philosopher said that “It appears so impossible that atoms.... could fix themselves into so vast and symmetrical a structure as the World. The creation and arrangement can be connected to no other cause, but to an Infinite Wisdom and Power” (Document 8). In this document, Walter Charleton states how far science can go and only God could have made such an amazing object which is our
These intellectuals significantly influenced the world leaders and institutions of the time, although the Catholic Church refused to accept most of the newly discovered scientific laws/theories as legitimate, as they opposed the fundamental doctrines of the Catholic faith. An example of the bigotry of the Catholic Church in this time, is the persecution of Galileo Galilei, which occurred due to his discoveries regarding a heliocentric solar system conflicting with the geocentric views of the Church. This conflict of beliefs led to the Church convicting Galileo of heresy, sentencing him to banishment, despite ample amounts of evidence and the approval of a variety of intellectuals supporting his
In the history of the Catholic Church, no episode is so contested by so many viewpoints as the condemnation of Galileo. The Galileo case, for many, proves the Church abhors science, refuses to abandon outdated teachings, and is clearly not infallible. For staunch Catholics the episode is often a source of embarrassment and frustration. Either way it is undeniable that Galileo’s life sparked a definite change in scientific thought all across Europe and symbolised the struggle between science and the Catholic Church.
Due to that, many philosophers have tried to search for a way to reconcile the differences in harmony. The author then shifted his focus on Galileo case and explain that the main point in Galileo case (on sun-center the universe but not the earth-center as the church interpreted from the bible), was to seek for the knowledge of nature and Bible in harmony but in not in conflict. He further explain that Galileo was in support of the view that bible teaches on salvation, that is how to go to heaven, but not how the heaven go. Knowledge of Natural world on the other hand, deals with empirical observation and reasoned demonstration. The case according to the author was rule in a political manner and Galileo was guilty and prosecuted. His friend, Pope urban VIII, turned against him. The author ended the chapter by explaining that, histories have shown that Galileo case was an argument about “enduring question of authority to produce and deliver knowledge. The church inquisitor saw Galileo’s claim as a threat to their beliefs and a challenge to their authority of power of give knowledge that why they found he
A dispute really may be about the unseen, perhaps even unconscious, judgements and values. In this week reading assignment, we read a letter to the grand duchess from Galileo, about his scientific views supporting Copernicus as well as his biblical views. In the letter he argues that Copernican theory was not just a mathematical calculating mechanics but a physical reality. He reveal that the Bible can not alone reveal all the meaning of life and first build the duchess with an authority figure and wrote this letter to explain his self esteem to convince the people about the religion he holds. The church believed that science is going to ruin the faith, power and authority. Galileo wasn't purposely saying all these to destroy the church with the facts but he was point out the main thing of educating our self with knowledge. There were misunderstanding that just need some time for
Galileo felt that the common opinions of others should not satisfy another’s curiosity and others should not be made to believe the opinions of others. The church as well as others that interpreted or preached from the Bible distorted the information and Galileo thought that those who did this should not be allowed to speak or preach about it.
Galileo is concerned with obtaining the truth about the world we live in, whether religion provides an answer or science. This is evident in the letter when he is discussing the “celestial bodies” concerning the work of Copernicus. Galileo believes that it would be wholly unjustified to ban Copernicus’ work after it has been confirmed over the years, he puts it: “in my judgement to be a contravention of the truth” if this were to occur. Basically Galileo believes if something is true, the basis of the truth either, religious or scientific is equally creditable. He further states that if scientific fact is unattainable, it must be a thing of faith and religion; “where human reasoning cannot reach” and there “is no science but only opinion of faith” the truth must be in the Scripture. This is demonstrated in the letter “whether the stars are animate” or “whether or not the heavens are spherical”. Galileo believes that ultimately that the science behind a phenomena will
He was an Italian physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, and engineer who played a large role in the scientific revolution (1564-1642). Galileo was often faced with controversial arguments about his findings. Based on the shared knowledge of the Catholic Church, it tried to compress the personal knowledge of Galileo. This is where the idea of personal and shared knowledge shaping each other comes into perspective, as Galileo was continuously faced with the knowledge of the Church. Continuously his personal knowledge was rejected, because shared knowledge had such an influence among the people. His hypothesis frightened both the Protestant leaders and Catholic Church because it went against their teachings and authority. If people believed that the church could be wrong about this, they would question the church teachings as well. The Church warned Galileo of his theories, however silently he continued to research. The Church's greatest fear was that Galileo's personal knowledge would ultimately change the shared knowledge of the Church. In 1632, he published a book which presented both of the ideas of Copernicus and Ptolemy, and it was clear that Galileo supported the Copernican theory which stated that the Earth moved around the Sun. Galileo was sentenced to court and found guilty. Under torture, he admitted his findings were false. Only in 1992, the Catholic Church