Gardner's Socio-Educational Model Of The Second Language Dequisition

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To begin with, Gardner’s Socio-Educational Model Gardner’s interest in the individual differences variables in second language acquisition started in 1956. Gardner began to develop his socio-educational model about the role of attitudes and motivation in second language learning in the 1960s and has revised and updated it until the present days. As a result of many empirical studies, Gardner’s initial finished model was presented in 1979, revised in 1985 and again in 2001 as in Figure 1. Figure 1: Gardner’s (1985) Socio-educational Model Before describing the socio-educational model and its revisions, Figure 1 above represents what Gardner considers to be the fundamental model of language learning. The model proposes that there are two primary individual differences variables in language learning: ability and motivation. It is proposed that individuals with higher levels of ability such as intelligence and language aptitude will tend to be more successful at learning the language than the students who are less “endowed”. Similarly, students with higher levels of motivation will do better than the students with lower levels, because they will expend more effort, will be more persistent, will be more attentive, will enjoy the experience more, will be goal directed, will want more…show more content…
Gardner “never meant integrativeness to mean one wanted to become a member of another cultural community, but rather an individual’s openness to talking on characteristics of another cultural/linguistic group”. Gardner (2005) states that “individuals for whom their own ethno-linguistic heritage is a major part of their sense of identity would be low in integrativeness; those for whom their ethnicity is not a major component, and who are interested in other cultural communities would be high in

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