Garnd and Middle Range Theories

1080 Words Feb 17th, 2014 5 Pages
Grand and Middle Range Theories
Meriam Izobo
Oakland University

Grand and Middle Range Theories

When one thinks of the word theory the next thought should be nursing because the foundations of nursing are built from nursing theories. The history of nursing holds a significance to theory in that theories help establish nursing as a profession (Smith & Liehr, 2014). Theories from the past in the Nightingale era and new theories today in the 21st century aid in the guidance of nursing practice and research (Smith & Liehr, 2014). In the twentieth century, nursing was not recognized as an academic discipline or a profession (Alligood, 2013). As theories such as the middle range and grand theories are being brought to the
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Grand theories are considered to be more abstract and are not utilized as often in nursing practice as the middle range theories (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). Grand theories focus more on defining what nursing is by explaining what it means to be a nurse, what are nursing responsibilities, what is the meaning behind nursing interventions, and finally what are nursing goals. In short these theories define the nursing profession. Grand theories are more global and work to explain the relationship between the environment, people, and society (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). Although very different these two theories both help explain the nature of nursing and assist in differentiating the field of nursing from other healthcare professions. Another similarity of these theories is that many of the same principles that are applied to the analysis and evaluation of grand theories can also be applied to middle range theories (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). They both assist in providing clinical guidelines for the nursing profession and both provide a list of other theories that are useful in nursing practice. There are more than fifty grand theories that exist, but because of their abstract characteristics it is hard at times to tell the difference between these theories and other nursing philosophies and conceptual models (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). These theories address the mission and goals of nursing care and have been created by observations or