Gender Is A Biological And Physiological Phenomenon

2510 WordsFeb 14, 201511 Pages
Literature Review Gender is a biological and physiological phenomenon that characterises the differences between males and females. One of the most contentious points relating to gender over the past few decades is the difference between the representation of the sexes within the workplace. Scott (2013) states that variations across gender in a working environment stem from social factors, which influence the behaviour of men and women. Some organisations such as those in the retail sector welcome gender diversity and encourage the inclusion of both sexes whereas other organisations for example the engineering industry may discourage gender inclusion and promote bias in the workplace. As is evident, the representation of both genders is an extremely controversial matter for organisations and industries. Due to the increasing number of industries the extent of the variation differs depending upon the type of work. The gender imbalances found in the work place is best defined by David Cotter (1984) and his 'Glass Ceiling Theory '. Glass Ceiling Theory (Cotter, 1984: 655) defines his theory as "an unofficial or unacknowledged barrier within an organisation’s hierarchy that prevents personal advancement, especially for women". The term ‘Glass Ceiling’ was popularised in the 1980’s and became an important concept in the workplace. The term evolved to include all minorities, with the word “ceiling” describing a barrier that women experience as they try to advance within a
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