Gender Roles And Women 's Careers

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Global statistics document an increase in women’s careers in the professions and portray successful female roles in the industrial, political and financial areas, with some variation in different regions of the world. Nonetheless, women hold only a small percentage of board seats and other influential positions in these areas worldwide. It is also known that presently, women see themselves as progressive and career-oriented. Yet in the treatment rooms of the mental health professionals they share experiences that evidence a great deal of discomfort in achieving successful careers free of self- stigma and guilt. One perspective in the understanding of this paradox lies with an appreciation of the gender role ideologies of marianismo and machismo, which socialize women and men differently across cultures. Gender role expectations have not completely disappeared from women’s experiences in their day to day professional interactions, and are not confined to members of traditional societies. When marianismo and machismo are not understood within the proper context, women’s overall self-esteem and successful career outcomes can be affected. This paper illuminates how these dynamics manifest in the treatment room of clinicians.

Keywords— gender role ideologies, marianismo and machismo, women 's careers, self-esteem

Attaining success in a career of choice can be significant for feelings of self-perception and self-evaluation (Abu-Hilal, et al., 2014; Heine 2001), but
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