Gene Sequencing And The Human Genome Project

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Gene sequencing is a method that helps us to read the genetic code and to compare normal genes with disease causing genes (Kratz, 2015). It is helpful to determine the precise order of the bases in a DNA strand, and mostly used for genetic variation or mutation that might lead to a development of a disease. This disease causing change can be a substitution, deletion or addition of a single base pair (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2014). Since the human genome project has completed its first draft in 2001, researchers are more keen to find out more about the human genome, the variability of the gene sequences amongst humans, and the relationship between the gene sequence variation to human health (Green et al., 2013). After a…show more content…
Patents are used to protect the gene sequence worldwide where the patent owner considers there will be a viable market in that area (Merz and Cho,2008).Patenting genes have become popular after the human genome was complete and became more a topic that people debated about (Caulfield and Gold, 2000). The patenting system in gene sequencing is important to discover new medicines and other advances in healthcare (Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2002). The European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) are looking for ways to develop the current patenting and licensing system in order to make the public handle the situation in a well manner, respect to the current legislation (European Journal of Human Genetics, 2008). Being quite a controversial topic there are a number of ethical issues that arise from the society which will be discussed below.

Human dignity
Patenting gene sequences has been a topic that has been debated and problematic for quite a while. One main issue that is discussed is human dignity. Thinking about patenting human genes can give the idea of owning the gene sequence. In fact a response from a lawyer would be that patenting is not exactly ownership. This statement is true but doesn’t change the way people think about dignity. Many people still think that human genes are commodities.

Even though patenting DNA reduces the risk of
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